Publications

Upcoming doctoral defenses

  • Shahroozi, Zahra

    Survivability control using data-driven approaches and reliability analysis for wave energy converters

    Häggsalen (10132), Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala 2024-05-17 09:00

    Open access
  • Jonasson, Erik

    Modeling and analysis of offshore hybrid power parks

    Sonja Lyttkens, 101121, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala 2024-05-14 09:15

    Open access

Publications

2023

  • Hjalmarsson, Johannes

    Energy Storage Systems in Electrical Distribution Grids: Analysis and implementations of use cases for service stacking

    2023.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This Ph.D. thesis investigates the possibility of using energy storage systems for multiple services by implementing service stacking, with special emphasis on congestion management in distribution grids. The shift towards increased shares of RES in combination with the ongoing electrification of society will create challenges in all parts of the power system. To ensure enough flexibility throughout the power system, energy storage should be part of the discussion as a crucial tool to support balancing and stability, but also to assist in or solve local and regional challenges. One important step in the development of energy storage integration is the forming of more complex business models where multiple services are provided using the same storage unit and is known as service stacking. This increases the availability of the storage capacity towards the power system where value could be generated on both local, regional and system levels. Although, one of the main barriers of energy storage investments have been the high investment and operational costs. By implementing service stacking, the chance of creating a lucrative business case increases and should be considered in all contexts of energy storage implementations.

    The targeted research questions focus on mapping the current state of service stacking implementations globally, comparing different methods for implementing scheduling optimization tools, and evaluation of the technical and economic performance for different service portfolios. According to the trends in the results of the appended papers, energy storage systems have the potential to stack services both as large-scale centralized units as well as small-scale distributed units and can be applied to all storage technologies. The higher degree of utilization of the storage units will result in increased degradation due to cycle aging, but the magnitude of this increase strongly depends on the service portfolio composition and allowed cycle intensity. Future work could focus on multi-objective optimization, extended service portfolios, and scheduling over several time scales to include seasonal storage and intraday trading.

    Open access
  • Felicetti, Roberto

    Run-Up Transient Analysis for Salient Pole Wound Field Synchronous Motors: Field winding and power electronics implications for a smoother and cooler asynchronous start

    2023.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Salient Pole Wound Field Synchronous Machines have better efficiency at full load than asynchronous machines of the same capability. Moreover, where asynchronous machines need inherently to draw a magnetizing current from the grid, Salient Pole Wound Field Synchronous Machines can work efficiently at unity power factor. When needed, their power factor can even turn leading in order to provide reactive power to the grid. It is well known, that the asynchronous machines performances deteriorate very quickly in presence of voltage drops, while the Wound Field Synchronous Machines prove to be capable of riding through voltage sags without stalling of falling out of step. Besides, for short-time overload, machines with a field winding can provide a pull-out torque even three times larger than the nominal one. Finally, when working as generators, Wound Field Synchronous Machines can perform a black starting where asynchronous machines cannot. Why are then asynchronous machines so successful in comparison to synchronous ones when used as motors? Robustness, low-maintenance, simplicity are the key-features that translate immediately in low fixed costs for asynchronous motors. But, even though lower variable costs for a synchronous motor should envisage a break-even starting form a given power rate on, there are still some technical issues to be overcome. A synchronous motor must be first sped-up to the synchronism for it to deliver mechanical power. And when it is directly on-line started like an asynchronous motor, it draws large reactive currents due to its large airgap. Therefore, additional means are needed for avoiding the motor overheating and voltage disturbances on the grid, such as autotransformers, transformers and reactors. Besides, in Salient Pole Wound Field Synchronous Machines. due to the inherent magnetic and electric rotor asymmetry, the starting asynchronous torque presents a nasty large pseudo-periodic ripple. 

    In this work, a novel starting technique is presented, which mitigates all problems related to the run-up by means of a special rotor winding and excitation-system arrangement. The suggested start strategy is validated by an experimental test carried out on a build prototype and through a field-to-circuit coupled transient simulation. Since AC currents are essentially injected into the rotor winding during the machine start, in its first part the thesis explores what does happen in a winding traditionally designed for the direct current supply when an alternated current is injected into it by a power electronics device. To that end, changes in the main field winding parameters are firstly investigated, which take place under AC-supply. The obtained results make it possible to build a wide-band frequency electromagnetic model for the field winding. The model is useful for studying the potentially harmful voltage surges and voltage gradients triggered by fast rising/falling voltage-edges. Finally, within the specific application of the field current control and with the aim to prevent large voltage surges, the research provides some hints for the design of the field winding and for the coordination of the power electronics and the field winding properties.

    Open access
  • Djurberg, Viktor

    Low Temperature Charge Transport in Diamond

    2023.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Diamond is a wide band semiconductor with fascinating electrical and physical properties. It has high thermal and electrical conductivity, high electrical breakdown field, high radiation hardness and is chemically inert. These properties make diamond an excellent material for high power electronics, high frequency electronics, particle detectors and for electronics in hazardous environments. Moreover, diamond has been suggested for applications in valleytronics.

    Valleytronics is a term for semiconductor technology that exploits minima in an energy band, so called valleys. In diamond there are six of these valleys in the conduction band and the conduction electrons resides in one of these six valleys at low temperatures. The valley an electron is in, its valley polarization, affects how it behaves in an electric field. The valley polarization along with an understanding of the electron-phonon scattering processes makes a good framework for understanding of electron transport in diamond. In this thesis, both of these topics have been explored, with the purpose of understanding low temperature electron transport in diamond. A detailed description of low temperature charge transport is relevant for several reasons. Firstly, it can help with understanding the charge transport in e.g. detectors. Secondly, it gives more degrees of freedom when designing new electronics.   

    In this thesis, both experiments and simulations has been used investigate low temperature transport in diamond. The main experiment method used was time-of-flight were the drift current of valley polarized electrons measured between two contacts. These experiment could then be compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations gave valuable insigne into the dynamics of the electrons. This self-written code for Monte Carlo simulations is described in greater detail in this thesis. 

    Some highlighted results of this thesis are as follows: optical observations of valley polarized diffusion, electrical control of valley polarized currents and the estimations of the acoustic deformation potentials to Du = 18.5 eV and Dd = -5.7 eV. This thesis also includes a more general part about charge transport.

    Open access
  • Mörée, Gustav

    Models of magnetism in electrical machines

    2023.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The magnetic field is a fundamental part of an electrical machine, for establishing the torque and inducing voltages and currents. Then acting as the link between mechanical power and electrical power. This thesis will give a comprehensive study of how magnetism could be modeled. Covering how the magnetic field relates to energy transfer, power flow, and the forces of electrical machines.

    An electromagnetic energy transfer is usually described by Poynting’s vector, which has a different formulation than the power flow of electrical engineering. The main difference is that Poynting’s vector localizes the energy flux in the surrounding electromagnetic fields of a current-carrying conductor, instead of inside the conductor itself.

    The forces in a machine can be modeled by the field lines of the magnetic flux density. The force density consists of two vector components: the magnetic tension force and the magnetic pressure gradient force. The magnetic tension force acts to straighten curved field lines, based on the curvature of the flux density. The magnetic pressure gradient force acts from areas of high flux to areas of low flux. The force density could describe the forces in a synchronous machine, both for the torque of the load and for the machine’s radial forces between the rotor and the stator.

    The force density could also be used to improve the understanding of Maxwell stress tensor,as they are easier to illustrate as vectors, compared to the matrix form within the Maxwell stresstensor. It also expresses the location of the force density, which can improve the use of enclosedvolumes when calculating forces based on the divergence theorem with Maxwell stress tensor.

    Open access
  • Degen, René

    Virtual Test Field for Highly Automated Vehicle Systems in Urban Environments

    2023.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Autonomous driving was and is one of the most important research and innovation drivers in the automotive and supplier industry. In addition to the predicted energy savings, a reduction in the number of accidents and their level of damage is also expected. In particular, the functional testing and legislation of highly automated driving functions play a decisive key role here. This results in a justified need for innovation and research and means major challenges for the entire technology sector. Traditional methods such as real-world tests and X-in-the-loop tests for proving functional safety still have their justification, but cannot answer all the questions posed by the diverse requirements in daily use. In particular, urban environments with highly complex traffic scenarios and diverse groups of actors can only be mapped to a limited extent using existing methods.

    In this work, a novel approach for testing automated vehicle systems in urban environments is presented. The goal is to create a safe and valid environment in which the vehicle under test can interact with real road users under realistic conditions. The basis is a highly realistic virtual model of a German city center. The physical behavior of the vehicle and the pedestrian is measured and transferred to the virtual city model in real time. Sensor models enable the interaction of the vehicle with the virtual environment and the pedestrian. With the help of different studies with different focuses, both individual functionalities as well as the overall functionality are finally evaluated.

    Open access
  • Katsidoniotaki, Eirini

    Offshore renewable energy systems: Quantification of extreme loads using computational methods

    2023.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This Ph.D. thesis investigates the dynamic response of offshore energy systems in extreme waves. The use of offshore energy technologies, such as wave energy systems and offshore wind turbines, is crucial for transitioning to clean energy and mitigating the effects of climate change. However, to design reliable systems, it is important to understand their behavior in harsh environmental conditions.The first part of the thesis focuses on classical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for modeling the response of structures in extreme waves. Breaking waves are numerically reproduced and the corresponding slamming loads are estimated, as well as the maximal forces on critical components such as the mooring system. The thesis addresses the challenge of computational mesh deformation, which can lead to numerical instability and failure in simulating extreme structural responses. Dynamic mesh techniques are implemented to overcome the limitations of classical techniques. Additionally, the thesis explores alternative approaches to representing a sea state, such as equivalent regular waves and focused waves, to reduce the computational cost of full sea state simulations. A mid-fidelity numerical model is also employed, with its accuracy verified against a high-fidelity solution.

    The second part of the thesis advances the use of probabilistic machine learning to develop a surrogate model for the mapping between extreme waves and the corresponding forces on the structure. A Bayesian active learning method is employed to train the model with high prediction accuracy, especially in extreme events. The surrogate model is many orders of magnitude faster than classical modeling methods and enables efficient statistical quantification of the quantities of interest, such as loads in critical system components.Overall, this thesis provides a comprehensive examination of advanced computational methods for estimating the dynamic response of offshore energy systems in extreme waves and enables reliable and cost-effective design through the use of fast and accurate surrogate models.

    Open access

Publications

2022

  • Potapenko, Tatiana

    Modelling of  Ocean Wave Energy Conversion for Increased Power Absorption

    2022.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The Earth is also called the blue planet, because more than 70 % of its surface is covered by water, mainly in oceans and seas. Wind blowing over the oceans is creating water waves, which can travel thousands of kilometers with just a small energy loss. Despite the abundant potential for the green energy market, wave energy is not yet exploited to the extent of wind and solar energies.

    There have been numerous attempts to convert wave energy into electricity. The wave energy converter, developed at Uppsala University, Sweden is of a point absorber type. The principal idea lies in utilizing a novel linear generator. The translator is a moving part inside the sub-merged linear generator and it is connected to a buoy, floating on the water surface. The buoy moves with the waves and the translator is dragged up and down relative to the stator. This reciprocal motion induces a voltage in the stator windings.

    The up-to-date stage of development for wave energy converters poses various issues. Still open challenges hold the technology away from commercial energy production. One of the main goals in wave energy research is to enhance the absorbed power for a single device, as well as for a wave power park of multiple wave energy converters. The power harvest can be increased in different ways, for example by optimizing the buoy, the generator or by implementing control on the operation of the device.

    This thesis focuses on studying wave energy converters in different wave climates by their power absorption. The main criteria influencing absorbed power are buoy size, weight on the system, damping force and available wave energy potential at the location of interest. The damping force can be computed by different approaches: constant optimal damping, resistive load (replicating passive control of currents in the stator windings) and RC-load (modeling a grid connected linear generator with an active rectification, such as phase angle compensation).

    Waves have a random nature. Therefore, the grid connection of the linear generator requires special solution. Power fluctuations of converted wave energy by the direct drive linear genera-tor may affect the integration into existing electrical grids. To study the connection of a single wave energy converter, as well as the wave park of three and ten devices, power hardware in the loop experiments have been carried out. The power quality analysis has been performed.

    Wave power has high potential and it can be integrated into the existing wind and solar energy production towards fully renewable microgrids. Yet, there is a chance of at least one quiet night during the year, when there are no wind and no waves. Estimation of frequency occurrence of absorbed power gives an insight into the regularity of such events. A case study in Hvide Sande, Denmark is presented. A mix of renewable energies (wind, solar and wave) is beneficial, as it gives a more stable energy supply with less variation in power production than when taken individually. Based on 30 years of historical data it is concluded, that the required battery size is sufficiently reduced for the renewable energy mix. The mix of wind, solar and wave has been shown to secure the lowest frequency of zero occurrences in power production and therefore is the most favorable choice for the future.

    Open access
  • Fregelius, Martin

    An experimental approach to energy storage based synthetic inertia and fast frequency regulation for grid balancing

    2022.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The increasing interest in renewable energy has significantly increased in the last decades. The increasing amount of variable renewable energy resources in the grid, which are connected via power electronics, reduces the total mechanical system inertia. Frequency-regulating resources such as hydropower will become more important in balancing variable renewable energy resources, setting higher requirements on stability and performance to maintain a stable electrical grid. This thesis concerns the decreased mechanical inertia from non-directly electrically coupled generation units. The thesis starts with a description of the grid system inertia situation today and presents two methods for estimating the grid frequency derivative used to provide synthetic inertia and one method used to enhance the mechanical inertia response of a synchronous generator. The synthetic inertia and enhanced inertia methods are tested in a small-scale experimental setup and compared with results from tests in the Nordic grid. A full-scale hybrid energy storage system was designed and built using a split frequency method as a power controller. The results show that a power-frequency derivative controller-based synthetic inertia method achieved an improved grid frequency quality during regular operation in the nano-grid experimental setup. The results are evaluated both via simulations and experimental tests. The results from the hybrid energy storage solution showed the possibility of increasing frequency quality by using a slow run of the river hydroelectric power plants and a battery energy storage system for frequency containment reserve.

    Open access
  • Bender, Anke

    Environmental Effects from Wave Power: Artificial Reefs and Incidental No-take Zones

    2022.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Marine renewable technologies have rapidly been developing over the past decade. Wave power is one of the renewable sources and has the potential securing the renewable electricity production. However, all renewable energy extraction affects the environment in some way and for a true sustainable energy generation, environmental effects need to be investigated. Beside uncertain effects from the technologies to habitats or organisms e.g., collision risks, electromagnetic fields, noise, past studies have also shown benefits on diversity, size and abundance of species around marine renewable technologies as a result of habitat creation by the devices and fishery exclusion in designated offshore park areas.

    This thesis deals with environmental effects from heaving point-absorber wave energy converters developed at Uppsala University and deployed on the Swedish west coast at the Lysekil research site and the Sotenäs Project wave power park over a period of four years. The scope was the investigation of artificial reef effects from wave power foundations on local mobile, mega and macrofauna during visual inspections using scuba diving on the first hand. On the second hand, the effects from the incidental no-take zone on decapods and two sea pen species were investigated applying cage fishing and ROV seabed surveys. A third focus was on environmental monitoring around MRE sites and monitoring of MRE installations, both in an experimental and theoretical approach.

    In the Lysekil research site, the results highlight that abundance and diversity can be enhanced locally around wave power foundations compared to control areas. The abundance and size of decapods were not significantly different within the wave power park and up to a distance of 360 m outside of it. In the Sotenäs Project wave power park a positive effect on Nephrops norvegicus size and burrow density but not on abundance was found on a scale of up to 1230 m. Sea pen abundance was enhanced inside the wave power park. However, interannual variation was strong.

    In conclusion, wave power foundations can influence abundance and diversity of marine organisms around foundations on a very local scale (meters). With the methods in this study, the investigations did not reveal strong effects on the abundance and size of decapods on a larger scale up to 1230 m away from foundations as a result of the no-take zone. However, a focus should be put on a further development of environmental monitoring routines around MRE sites and their evaluation.

    Open access

Publications

2021

  • Frost, Anna E.

    In the Air Gap of Linear Generators for Wave Power

    2021.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Wave power conversion is one type of renewable electricity generation. Within wave power, there are many different concepts, whereof some utilizes linear generators for converting the energy in the ocean waves into electricity. A linear generator consists of a translator, which is moving and have magnets of alternating polarity, and a stator, which have conductors sur-rounded by laminated steel. Between the translator and stator is an air gap, which is only a few millimeters wide. All linear generators for wave power, to the author’s knowledge, are permanent-magnet synchronous generators. This thesis looks into the forces and power flow in the air gap of linear generators for wave power, with the purpose of improving their future performance. The studies have focused on permanent magnet synchronous generators for wave power, but several of the results should also be applicable for other applications of linear elec-trical machines.

    Depending on the design of the linear generators, the translator can move so long that it only partially overlap the stator. This is common among several different wave power concepts with linear generators. When the stator is only partially overlapped by the stator it is denoted as partial stator overlap. It is studied how partial stator overlap affects the generated electric-ity, the absorbed energy, and the tangential and normal force in the air gap. The generated electricity and absorbed energy of a linear generator are quadratically dependent on the partial stator-translator overlap is shown through Faraday’s law and simulations. Experimental data showed that the absorbed energy is both linearly and quadratic depending on partial stator over-lap, where the linear dependence is at least partially due to frictional losses. Simulated results confirm that voltage is linearly dependent on partial stator overlap, which means quadratic de-pendence between generated electric and partial stator overlap. The simulated forces showed a linear dependence.

    Decades ago, the Poynting vector was used to derive an expression for the power flow in the air gap of rotating electrical machines. In this thesis the equivalent expressions for both flat and tubular linear electrical machines were derived. The analytical results were also compared with results from simulations. Both the analytical expressions and simulations showed that tubular and flat linear electrical machines have slightly different behavior.

    Open access
  • Sjölund, Jonathan

    On the System Optimization of Magnetic Circuit with Alternative Permanent Magnets and its Demagnetization

    2021.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Permanent magnet (PM) machines are often associated with the usage of rare earth magnets, due to their high energy density. One such rare earth magnet is the neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB), which is mainly produced in China. Due to the global scarcity of the rare earth magnets, much interest is put into utilizing other permanent magnet materials. Among those materials is the category of ferrite permanent magnets, known for having lower magnetic properties than NdFeB. Ferrites share some of the properties with NdFeB that makes simulations simpler, namely that they have, at least, partly linear behavior in the demagnetization curve. The lower coercive properties of ferrites can, however, force them more easily into the non-linear regions of the demagnetization curves, resulting in a gradual irreversible demagnetization that lowers the performance of the ferrites. 

    In this thesis, the magnetic circuits of electrical machines with ferrites are investigated. The implications of the reduced coercive properties are studied and means to account for the irreversible demagnetization when designing the magnetic circuit. An optimization methodology for the magnetic circuit in a linear generator is developed and presented. It is found that the coercive properties may influence the PM geometry, for the given penalty for demagnetization. By proper pole shoe design, one can reduce the inclination angle of the magnetic fields inside the PMs. The difference in topology between the surface mounted NdFeB and the buried ferrites is studied regarding the inherent longitudinal end forces of linear machines. It is found that the end forces can be reduced under both no-load and load by alterations of the stator ends.  Electrical machine simulations in finite element software are often done in a two-dimensional cross section of the machine. The difference between the two-dimensional cross section and the more accurate three-dimensional model is investigated, showing that the magnetic end leakage flux in the end regions can cause a discrepancy between the two models. 

    Open access
  • Aihara, Aya

    Aeroacoustic Prediction for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    2021.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis investigates the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic prediction of vertical axis wind turbines, using computational fluid dynamics simulations. Noise pollution from wind turbines is one of the disadvantages of wind energy, calling for strategies to reduce noise levels. Yet for vertical axis wind turbines in particular, there is insufficient knowledge of how to identify sound sources and mitigate the sound level. The aim of this study is to predict aerodynamic noise, using large eddy simulation and acoustic analogy, so as to better understand the mechanism of sound generation for vertical axis wind turbines. First, the prediction method is validated for a static single blade in stall. This model is able to capture the dominant frequency, but it does not well reproduce the broadband characteristics. Next, the aerodynamic behavior of the 12 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine is studied, whereby the focus is on the importance of properly modeling the strut influence for an accurate prediction of the blade forces. To achieve this, the flow field is solved for three different tip speed ratios. The results show that the struts significantly affect on the force distribution along the blade. The reduction of the blade force is observed to occur not only at the attachment points of the struts, but also over a large area of the blade section in the downwind side where the blade interacts with the wake created in the upwind. Finally, the noise radiated from the vertical axis wind turbine operating at high tip speed ratio is predicted. Measurements are conducted to validate the prediction, with the experimental data representing the broadband noise characteristics dominant at around 800 Hz. The prediction reproduces the sound pressure level observed at a radial distance of 1.4 rotor diameter, with a few decibels difference. However, these discrepancies become more pronounced at double distance, which can be considered to arise due to the effect of the ground reflection being ignored. The simulation furthermore indicates, that the main sound sources are emitted when the blade rotates in the downwind. It is suggested that future work should properly consider the atmospheric turbulence for more accurate predictions.

    Open access

Publications

2020

  • Giassi, Marianna

    Numerical and experimental modelling for wave energy arrays optimization

    2020.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Many wave power conversion devices, especially point-absorbers, do not provide alone the necessary amount of converted electricity to be cost effective, instead they are designed to be deployed in arrays of many units. Such arrays, or parks, can satisfy a large-scale energy demand, reduce the costs of the produced electricity and improve the reliability of the system.

    The performance of a wave energy park is affected by multiple and mutually interacting parameters, and the complex problem that arises during its design is called array optimization.

    The scope of the present thesis is to study such systems and their design, by the development of an optimization routine able to predict the best layout of a wave energy park under fixed constraints. The wave energy converter considered is the point-absorber developed at Uppsala University, which consists of a linear electric generator located on the seabed and a floating buoy at the surface.

    An optimization routine based on a genetic algorithm was created, which allows simultaneous optimization of the geometry of the buoys, the damping coefficient of the linear generators and the geometrical layout of the park.

    Finally, an experimental campaign with a single device and three arrays of six devices was conducted in order to compare the theoretical results with experimentally acquired data.

    The results identify optimal configurations of wave energy arrays, and highlight the effect of optimizing upon different objective functions, including economical ones. In the experiments, standard models and common assumptions used for wave energy park optimizations were tested against realistic conditions.

    Open access
  • Leijon, Jennifer

    Wave Power for Desalination

    2020.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This doctoral thesis presents work related to wave powered desalination. Wave power for desalination could be an interesting alternative for islands or coastal regions facing freshwater shortage, and several systems have been proposed in literature. However, desalination is a process which demands a lot of energy. Studies presented in the thesis indicate that the wave energy converter designed at Uppsala University in Sweden could be used for desalination. This wave energy converter includes a floating buoy connected via a wire to a linear generator. The linear generator has magnets mounted on its movable part (the translator). Small-scale experiments have been included, indicating that intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wave power, could be used for reverse osmosis desalination. Moreover, hybrid systems, including several different renewable energy sources, could be investigated for desalination. There may be interesting minerals in the desalination brine. The thesis also includes investigations on the magnetic material inside the linear generator, as well as on control strategies for wave energy converters. An opportunity of including different types of ferrites in the linear generator has been analyzed. The thesis also presents pedagogic development projects for the electro engineering education at Uppsala University, suggesting that including a greater variability and more student-centered learning approaches could be beneficial.

    Open access

Publications

2019

  • Parwal, Arvind

    Grid Integration and Impact of a Wave Power System

    2019.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Increasing energy consumption and concern for carbon emissions has boosted the demand for renewable energy production. The focus on renewable energy has gained much attention in wind, solar, hydro and wave power generations. Wave power has great potential due to its high energy density but there are challenges as well. This thesis addresses some of the challenges involved in the grid integration of wave energy and in maintaining power quality. In this thesis a grid connection of permanent magnet linear generator (PMLG) based wave energy converter (WEC) as a renewable energy source is evaluated at the Division of Electricity, Uppsala University.

    The grid impact of a wave energy park in terms of flicker, voltage variations and harmonic distortion at the grid-connection point are investigated extensively. The short-term flicker level generated by the WEC and a wave energy park (WEP) related to the rated WEP power and grid impedance angle at the PCC are evaluated.

    In this thesis, an improved control for hybrid energy storage is presented, which enhanced the efficiency and increased the battery life while smoothing the intermittent power from the WEP. The thesis, also, contributes to resolve the problem of inertia and power balance by integrating the DC-link capacitor in the control loop which reduce the size and cost of the components at the DC-link.

    The work presented in the thesis has contributed for the force control of the PMLG which is predicted and controlled by regulating the stator currents of the generator. A nonlinear, neural, control is evaluated and compared to a linear, proportional-integral, control. The results from the nonlinear control show the good agreement between the referenced and the generated currents. The reduced losses enhanced the accuracy of the system.

    A control and grid connection system for a WEC has been designed and installed. The thesis addresses the issue of power quality in low, steady and varying power flows of compliance with the grid code requirements.

    Open access
  • Ayob, Mohd Nasir

    Adaptation of wave power plants to regions with high tides

    2019.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The wave energy converter (WEC) developed at Uppsala University is based on the concept of a heaving point absorber with a linear generator placed on the seafloor. The translator inside the generator oscillates in a linear fashion and is connected via a steel wire to a point absorbing buoy. The power production from this device is optimal when the translator’s oscillations are centered with respect to the stator. However, due to the tides, the mean translator position may shift towards the upper or lower limits of the generator’s stroke length, thereby affecting the power production. This effect will be severe if the WEC operates in an area characterized by a high tidal range. The translator may be stuck at the top or rest at the bottom of the generator for a considerable amount of time daily.

    One of the solutions to this problem is to develop a compensator that is able to adjust the length of the connecting line. With an estimated weight of 10 tonnes of the connecting line and the translator, the use of a pocket wheel wound with steel chain was deemed suitable. Not being connected to an external power supply, the device needs a alternative local power supply to charge batteries that run the system. A hybrid system of solar photovoltaics (PV) and a small WEC was proposed to power the device and, based on the simulations for two different sea states, the hybrid system was found suitable for powering the device all year round. The experimental work carried out in the lab environment has shown that the compensator was able to lift the estimated load of the translator and to position the chain so that it follows the variations in the sea level from meteorological websites.

    The second part of the thesis is a study on the wave energy potential in the Nordic synchronous grid. A model for the allocation of wave farms for four energy scenarios was developed, linearly weighted to the intensity of the wave energy flux. As an extension to this study, a net load variability study for a highly or a fully renewable Nordic power system was conducted. It involved four different intermittent renewable energy (IRE) sources: solar PV, wind, tidal power, and wave. The study shows that an optimal combination of IRE sources to replace fossil fuels and nuclear energy is possible from the perspective of net load variability.

    Open access
  • Chatzigiannakou, Maria Angeliki

    Offshore deployments of marine energy converters

    2019.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The depletion warning of non-renewable resources, such as gas, coal and oil, and the imminent effects of climate change turned the attention to clean and fossil fuel-free generated electricity. University research groups worldwide are studying solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ocean energy harvesting. The focus of this thesis is the wave and marine current energy researched at the division of Electricity at Uppsala University (UU). 

    The main drawbacks that hinder the commercialization of marine energy converter devices is a high installation, operation, maintenance and decommissioning cost. Furthermore, these processes are highly weather dependent and thus, can be time consuming beyond planning. In this thesis, an evaluation of the cost, time and safety efficiency of the devices’ offshore deployment (both wave and marine current), and a comparative evaluation regarding the safety in the use of divers and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are conducted. Moreover, a risk analysis study for a common deployment barge while installing an UU wave energy converter (WEC) is presented with the aim to investigate the failure of the crane hoisting system.

    The UU wave energy project have been initiated in 2001, and since then 14 WECs of various designs have been developed and deployed offshore, at the Lysekil research site (LRS), on the Swedish west coast and in Åland, Finland. The UU device is a point absorber with a linear generator power take off. It is secured on the seabed by a concrete gravity foundation. The absorbed wave energy is transmitted to shore through the marine substation (MS) where all the generators are interconnected. In 2008 an UU spin-off company, Seabased AB (SAB), was established and so far has developed and installed several WECs and two MSs, after the UU devices main principle. SAB deployments were conducted in Sotenäs, Sweden, at the Maren test site (MTS) in Norway; and in Ada Foah, Ghana. The active participation and the thorough study of the above deployments led to a cost, time and safety evaluation of the methods followed. Four main methods were identified and the most suitable one can be chosen depending on the deployment type, for example, for single or mass device deployment.

    The first UU full scale marine current energy converter (MCEC) was constructed in 2007 at the Ångström Laboratory and deployed at Söderfors, in the river Dalälven in March 2013. The UU turbine is of a vertical axis type and is connected to a directly driven permanent magnet synchronous generator of a low-speed. With this deployment as an example, four MCEC installation methods were proposed and evaluated in terms of cost and time efficiency.

    A comparative study on the use of divers and ROVs for the deployment and maintenance of WECs at the LRS has been carried out, showing the potential time and costs saved when using ROVs instead of divers in underwater operations. The main restrictions when using divers and ROVs were presented. Most importantly, the modelling introduced is generalized for most types of wave energy technologies, since it does not depend on the structure size or type.

    Finally, a table of safe launch operation of a WEC is presented. In this table the safe, restrictive and prohibitive sea states are found for a single WEC deployment, using a barge and a crane placed on it. The table can be utilized as a guidance for offshore operations safety and can be extended for a variety of device types and vessels.

    Open access

Publications

2018

  • Francisco, Francisco

    Adapting sonar systems for monitoring ocean energy technologies

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The global energy sector is under profound reforms aiming towards renewable energy sources, clean technologies and expansion of smart grids, all with the additional aim of providing affordable and dependable electricity for everyone. A reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is a priority on the global agenda, and to achieve that, cleaner energy technologies has to be more integrated into the energy mix. This thesis focus on a sustainable implementation of wave, tidal and offshore wind power, wherefore there is a need to investigate more about the prerequisites and consequences ocean energy can have on the marine environment. For that, reliable, cost effective and continuous environmental monitoring framework is necessary in order to support and safeguard ocean energy operations.

    The main objectives of the research presented in this thesis are to develop a multifunctional environmental monitoring platform based on sonar systems for ocean energy applications, by adapting high resolution multibeam, dual beam and split beam sonar systems and also underwater cameras; Propose data acquisition and processing protocols capable of decipher sonar data in order to provide continuous environmental monitoring and reporting; Conduct qualitative and quantitative observations of fish and marine mammals using the built monitoring platform; And investigate the feasibility of utilizing the Uppsala University wave energy converter technology to generate electricity worldwide. As a result, a multifunctional platform was designed, built and tested. This included the hardware, the data acquisition system, and a data analysis framework comprising new algorithms necessary to process the new acoustic data. The multibeam, dual beam, and split beam sonar systems and underwater cameras produced both qualitative and quantitative data of biomass, occurrence and behavior of fish and marine mammals in the vicinity of ocean energy devices. With this platform, it was also possible to conduct seabed and structural inspections within ocean energy devices, observe cavitating flows, etc. One of the most important results of this research was the possibility of extracting visual signatures of fish and marine mammals through acoustic images. This can be valuable for training algorithms for manual or automatic identification and classification of underwater targets through imaging sonar systems, a technique that can be widely used in the offshore activities. Regarding feasibility studies and wave power resource assessment, this study concluded that mild wave climates can provide enough energy to run reverse osmosis desalination systems as well as produce sufficient electricity to integrate into a national grid.

    In summary, this thesis concludes that the implementation of ocean energy can be facilitated by creating environmental monitoring, risk and resource assessment frameworks such as the presented research work that contribute to lowering the risks associated with subsea work and thereby costs of ocean energy projects.

    Open access
  • Eklund, Petter

    Design of Rare Earth Free Permanent Magnet Generators

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Low speed permanent magnet (PM) synchronous generators (SGs) are commonly used in renewable energy. Rare earth (RE) PMs such as neodymium-iron-boron are a popular choice due to their high performance. In 2011 supply and cost issues were added to the previously existing environmental concerns regarding REPM raw materials as the world's major producer China imposed export restrictions. This thesis aims to investigate and propose design solutions for PMSGs that do not use REPMs. Two approaches are used: to design generators using the cheaper and more abundant ferrite PM materials, and to investigate how properties of new PM materials influence SG design.

    A ferrite PM rotor is designed to replace a REPM rotor in an experimental 12 kW wind power generator. The new design employs a flux concentrating spoke type rotor to achieve performance similar to the old REPM rotor while using ferrite PMs. The ferrite PM rotor design is built. The air gap length, magnetic flux density in the air gap, PM remanence, and voltage at both load and no load are measured. The generator has lower no load voltage than expected, which is mainly explained by lower than specified remanence of the ferrite PMs in the prototype. With the measured remanence inserted into the calculations some discrepancy remains. It is found that the discrepancy can be explained by the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the spoke type rotor, which is not modeled in the two dimensional simulations used for the design calculations.

    To investigate the influence of PM material properties three different PM rotor topologies are optimized for torque production using PM materials described by their remanence, recoil permeability, and demagnetization resistance. Demagnetization is considered using currents determined by a novel, winding design independent short circuit model. It is found that the spoke type rotor gives the highest torque of the three rotor topologies for low remanence materials as long as the PMs have sufficient demagnetization resistance. For high remanence materials the surface mounted PM rotor can give higher torque if the demagnetization resistance is high, but otherwise a capped PM rotor gives higher torque.

    Open access
  • Forslund, Johan

    Studies of a Vertical Axis Turbine for Marine Current Energy Conversion: Electrical system and turbine performance

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Ocean energy is a field of growing interest when it comes to renewable energy thanks to its high density of energy per unit area, and to the high predictability. Conversion of hydrokinetic energy, found in marine currents, is the utilization of the energy in free-flowing water for conversion to electric energy. This thesis presents experimental data from a test site with a marine current converter.

    The converter system features a vertical axis turbine directly connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator placed on the riverbed. The converter is controlled by an electrical system. The focus of the work is to evaluate power control methods and turbine performance.  

    Results of a simple voltage control system is presented and compared with operation without control. The turbine type in the converter system is not self-starting. The startup power and energy has been investigated through experiments. The converter system has been connected to the local electric utility grid and the first experimental results are presented.  

    The performance of the turbine for a range of water speeds is investigated. The range of experiments are limited by the water velocity at the experimental site. To address the issue, a simulation model coupling the electrical system and hydrodynamic model into one has been validated. One factor affecting the turbine's power capture is the angle of the blade pitch relative to the water flow. The influence of blade pitch on turbine performance is studied with experiments and two 3D simulation models.

    The possibilities of powering a desalination plant using marine current converters is discussed. Water speed data from outside the east coast of South Africa has been used for a case study. The study investigates how many people can early be supplied with freshwater using the converter system at the experimental site as a model. 

    Open access
  • Remouit, Flore

    Automation of underwater operations on wave energy converters using remotely operated vehicles

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    In the last fifteen years, the Division of Electricity at Uppsala University has been developing a wave energy converter (WEC) concept. The concept is based on a point-absorbing buoy with a directly driven linear generator placed on the seabed. Several units are connected to a marine substation, whose role is to collect and smooth the power absorbed from the waves and then bring it to the shore through one single cable.

    A big challenge in the project is to reduce the costs related to the deployment and maintenance of the WECs and substation. Currently, those operations are performed by divers, which is costly and entail considerable risks. A possibility is to replace divers with automated solutions using small robots called remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). This PhD thesis proposes and analyses a method for deployment and maintenance of underwater devices with no use of diving operations.

    Existing ROVs need additional modules and equipment in order to carry out operations with the required force and precision. Typical missions are inspection, shackles or slings removal, valve closing, and cable connection. The latter demands especially high precision in the positioning: 5 mm in distance and 5◦ in heading angle. In addition, this operation involves forces up to 200 N. This combination power-precision is not reached by existing ROVs. This PhD thesis presents a positioning system for underwater robot to enable autonomous positioning of the vehicle before cable connection.

    The positioning system is composed of two green lasers and a monocular camera, and is based on image processing. Experimental results from laboratory testing show that the mean absolute error in distance measurement is as low as 6 mm at 0.7 m from the target, whereas the heading is minimized to 2◦. The computational time for the image processing is 13.6 ms per image, meaning the possibility of a 30 Hz measurement system. Used together with a closed-loop path-following unit, this positioning system can support autonomous docking. This PhD thesis presents the model of an autopilot and results from docking simulations, showing the performance of the positioning system used in closed-loop.

    Open access
  • Suntornwipat, Nattakarn

    Diamond Devices Based on Valley Polarization

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Diamond is a wide bandgap semiconductor with extreme properties such as high thermal conductivity, high breakdown field, high carrier mobilities and chemical inertness. These properties together with the possibility to synthesize high purity Single-Crystalline (SC) diamond by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), make it a very interesting material and a candidate for use in power electronics and in hazardous environments. The low impurity concentration achieved when fabricating diamond by CVD allows for a detailed study of the intrinsic electronic properties.

    Diamond has six equivalent conduction band valleys oriented along the {100} axes with a uniquely low scattering rate between them. At low temperatures, the intervalley phonon scattering rate in diamond becomes negligible, which leads to a stable valley polarization state. We have observed non-equilibrium valley populations (valley-polarized electron ensembles), which in turn have been found to result in a Negative Differential Mobility (NDM).

    NDM is commonly only observed in direct bandgap materials such as GaAs, InP and CdTe but our group has also observed NDM in diamond at a temperature range of 100 to 150 K. The occurrence of this phenomenon can be explained by electron repopulation, which is the scattering of electrons between different valleys. If NDM is pronounced enough, electric current instabilities build up and give rise to oscillations. By exploiting this phenomenon, a Transferred-Electron Oscillator (TEO) can be constructed for microwave applications.

    Further investigations into the valley-polarized electrons seen in diamond could bring it forward as an alternative material for use in electronic devices. This use, called valleytronics, is similar to spintronics but instead of using the electron spin, the polarization in the conduction band valleys is used to transfer information. Digital electronic circuits use the presence or absence of charge to encode information which relies on a rapid redistribution of mobile charge carriers. This requires energy which results in losses and thus sets a theoretical limit to the maximum switching frequency. This is one of the main issues of electronic devices and can be mitigated by using alternative technologies such as spintronics or valleytronics.

    In order to get a better understanding of the electron valley repopulation effects, the focus of this doctoral thesis is the study of electron charge transport in SC-CVD diamond at low temperatures. The thesis also aims at using valley-polarized states as a foundation for the creation of electronic devices such as TEOs or valley-transistors, out of diamond.

    Open access
  • Mendoza, Victor

    Aerodynamic Studies of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines using the Actuator Line Model

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis addresses the unsteady aerodynamics involved in the operation of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The main focus is to represent and understand the most relevant phenomena within the resulting flow pattern as the wake structure, loads on the different turbine components and the performance of the rotor. An actuator line model has been used for this purpose.

    This model has been validated against experimental measurements from diverse cases with different operating conditions in both confined wind tunnels and open site locations. Numerical works were carried out considering a wide range of tip speed ratios (TSRs), and therefore covering from the no stall to the deep stall regime. The latter requires the implementation of a dynamic stall model for the proper representation of the unsteady forces on the blades. Also, different inlet conditions such as a uniform flow, a logarithmic wind shear and an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) have been tested. The so-called recycling method technique was used to produce the fully developed ABL flow. Additionally, the resulting wake and performance of interacting turbines has been studied.

    Once the model was validated, two numerical study cases for large scale turbines were carried out. First, the performance and resulting flow field from both a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and VAWT were investigated when the turbines were operating at their optimal TSR and within the same ABL inflow boundary conditions. The influence of the variation on the atmospheric turbulence levels was also studied, as well as the differences and similarities on the obtained results for both type of turbines. Later, the performance improvement of two interacting VAWTs was investigated through the deflected wake produced by the pitched struts of the upstream turbine. This is presented as a novel mechanism to mitigate losses on interacting turbine arrangements (i.e. wind farms).

    In general, there is a reasonable good agreement between numerical results and experimental measurements, and therefore, the applied ALM can be considered as a potential tool for VAWTs simulations, characterized by relatively low computational cost showing accuracy and numerical stability.

    Open access
  • Siliņš, Kaspars

    Plasma Enhanced Chemical- and Physical- Vapor Depositions Using Hollow Cathodes

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Development of coating deposition technologies, in terms of performance and costs, is an ongoing process. A promising class of deposition technologies are based on hollow cathode discharges.

    This thesis investigates performance of selected hollow cathode plasma sources developed at the Plasma group, at Uppsala University for coating deposition at moderate pressures. Amorphous carbon film deposition was investigated by Radio frequency (RF) Hollow Cathode Plasma Jet (RHCPJ) and Magnets-in-Motion (M-M) linear hollow cathode plasma sources. Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by a magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced magnetron Target (HoCET). Aluminium nitride (AlN) deposition by RHCPJ was compared with High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS).

    Amorphous carbon films were prepared on glass substrates without an interlayer. The AlN and TiN films were deposited on Si substrates. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze plasma composition. The coating structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The thickness of films was measured by scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The TiN hardness was analyzed by microhardness test method and confirmed by nanoindentation analysis.

    Adherent amorphous carbon coating deposition process was transferred from RHCPJ to the M-M linear hollow cathode. Utilizing the latter plasma source, it was found that thick and adherent amorphous carbon coatings can be deposited in a range of 0.25% to 0.5% of C2H2 in Ar at constant a deposition pressure of 0.3 Torr and 1200 W of RF power. Deposition rates of 0.2 μm/min and 0.375 μm/min respectively were reached. Self-delaminating, thick (50 μm) amorphous carbon films can be deposited at a deposition rate of 2.5 μm/min at 2% C2H2. A non-linear relation was observed between the deposition rate and the C2H2 content.

    Utilizing the HoCET arrangement, high deposition rates of stoichiometric, polycrystalline TiN films are obtained. A maximum of 0.125 μm/min is obtained at 2.4% N2 in Ar, 1200 W RF power, 14 mTorr deposition pressure. TiN films deposited at 4 - 20% nitrogen contents displayed hardness values above 28 GPa reaching a maximum of 31.4 GPa at 5% N2.

    For a (002) oriented AlN film deposition the RHCPJ offers deposition rates of up to 150 nm/min. Using the HiPIMS at comparable deposition conditions the AlN films were achieved at a rate of 24 nm/min.

    Open access
  • Hettiarachchi, Pasan

    Measurements of X-Ray Emission from Laboratory Sparks and Upward Initiated Lightning

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    In 1925 Nobel laureate R. C. Wilson predicted that high electric fields of thunderstorms could accelerate electrons to relativistic energies which are capable of generating high energetic radiation. The first detection of X-rays from lightning was made in 2001 and from long sparks in 2005. Still there are gaps in our knowledge concerning the production of X-rays from lightning and long sparks, and the motivation of this thesis was to rectify this situation by performing new experiments to gather data in this subject.

    The first problem that we addressed in this thesis was to understand how the electrode geometry influences the generation of X-rays. The results showed that the electrode geometry affects the X-ray generation and this dependency could be explained using a model developed previously by scientists at Uppsala University. The other missing information was the distribution of energy. Using a series of attenuators, we observed how the X-ray photons were attenuated as a function of barrier thickness and using a simple model we obtained the average and the maximum energy of X-rays. 

    All the studies conducted previously was based on the lightning impulses, but in switching impulses, the voltage waveform rises very slowly compared to lightning impulses, and according to some scientists the rate of rise is an important parameter in X-ray development. Our study showed that the switching impulses were as efficient as lightning impulses in generating X-rays even though the rate of rise of voltage in switching impulses was hundreds of times slower.

    All the observations on X-ray generation from lightning by other scientists were based on either natural downward lightning flashes or triggered lightning in Florida. The first experiments to study the X-ray generation from upward lightning flashes systematically was conducted within this thesis work at Gaisberg Tower in Austria. The results showed that the X-ray emissions from these flashes were much weaker than the ones produced by either natural downward or triggered lightning. An attempt was made to explain this observation by invoking the possible differences in the charge distribution of leaders associated with the triggered lightning flashes in Florida and upward initiated lightning flashes at Gaisberg tower.

    Open access
  • Hultman, Erik

    Robotized Production Methods for Special Electric Machines

    2018.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    A research project on renewable energy conversion from ocean waves to electricity was started at the Division of Electricity at Uppsala University (UU) in 2001. The Wave Energy Converter (WEC) unit developed in this project is intended to be used in large offshore WEC farms and has therefore been designed with large-scale production in mind. The concept has now also been commercialized by the spin-off company Seabased Industry AB.

    An essential part of the UU WEC is the linear direct-drive generator. This thesis presents the pilot work on developing robotized production methods for this special electric machine. The generator design is here investigated and four different backbreaking, monotone, potentially hazardous and time consuming manual production tasks are selected for automation. A robot cell with special automation equipment is then developed and constructed for each task. Simplicity, reliability and flexibility are prioritized and older model pre-owned industrial robots are used throughout the work. The robot cells are evaluated both analytically and experimentally, with focus on full scale experiments. It is likely that the developed production methods can be applied also for other similar electric machines.

    The main focus in the thesis is on robotized stator cable winding. The here presented robot cell is, to the knowledge of the author, the first fully automated stator cable winding setup. Fully automated winding with high and consistent quality and high flexibility is demonstrated. Significant potential cost savings compared to manual winding are also indicated. The robot cell is well prepared for production, but further work is required to improve its reliability.

    The other three developed robot cells are used for stator stacking, surface mounting of permanent magnets on translators and machining of rubber discs. All robot cell concepts are experimentally validated and considerable potential cost savings compared to manual production are indicated. Further work is however required with regards to autonomy and reliability.

    Finally, the thesis presents a pedagogical development work connected to the research on robotized production methods. A first cycle course on automation and robot engineering is here completely reworked, as it is structured around three real-world group project tasks. The new course is evaluated from the examination results, the students’ course evaluations and the feedback from the teachers during six years. The students greatly appreciated the new course. It is indicated that the developed teaching approach is effective in teaching both classical and modern engineering skills.

    Open access

Publications

2017

  • Johari, Dalina

    Features of the Electric Fields Generated by Lightning with Special Attention to Positive Ground Flashes

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis focuses on the main processes in positive ground flashes and the distant lightning environment for both positive and negative ground flashes. It presents the characteristics of the preliminary breakdown pulses (PBPs), the characteristics of the electric field pulses observed during leader propagation, and the characteristics of the electric fields produced by the first and the subsequent return strokes. It also features the observations of distant positive and negative ground flashes at distances up to 1000 km. The results were based on electric field measurements conducted remotely during summer thunderstorms in Sweden in 2014.

    We found that the majority of the positive ground flashes were preceded by PBPs. Some were preceded by more than one PBP train, and the parameter values for the subsequent PBP trains were found to be smaller than the values for the first PBP train. Three types of PBPs were also identified. The results suggest that the PBPs in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden are weak, and the inverted dipole charge cloud configuration is consistent with our observation.

    A small percentage of these positive ground flashes were observed to be preceded by pronounced leader pulses. The presence of these pulses suggests that the leaders propagate in a stepped manner. We inferred that these pulses were due to the upward-connecting negative leader since their characteristics were similar to those of a negative stepped leader. On the basis of the leader pulses’ time of initiation and the average speed of the leader, we estimated the distance travelled by the leader. One case of positive return stroke preceded by negative leader pulses was also observed, and the occurrence of these pulses was the first in positive ground flashes to be reported.

    The majority of these positive ground flashes were found to be single-stroke. Comparison between the first and the subsequent return strokes showed that the average durations of the subsequent stroke parameters were smaller than that of the first strokes. The distances reported by the lightning location system suggest that the subsequent strokes probably created new terminations to ground. Two possible reasons were given to explain the reason for the shorter duration of the subsequent return strokes parameters compared to the first strokes.

    Finally, observations of distant positive and negative ground flashes showed that the electric field waveforms have a typical shape, like a distorted ‘W’ (or distorted ‘M’ for negative ground flashes) followed by small oscillations. These small oscillations were more pronounced in negative ground flashes, especially at a greater distance. The heights of the ionospheric reflections estimated for both ground flashes were found to likely correspond to a D-layer of the ionosphere. Two possible reasons were suggested for the small oscillations observed in the waveforms.

    Open access
  • Rossander, Morgan

    Electromechanics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Wind power is an established mean of clean energy production and the modern horizontal axis wind turbine has become a common sight. The need for maintenance is high and future wind turbines may need to be improved to enable more remote and offshore locations. Vertical axis wind turbines have possible benefits, such as higher reliability, less noise and lower centre of gravity. This thesis focuses on electromechanical interaction in the straight bladed Darrieus rotor (H-rotor) concept studied at Uppsala University.

    One of the challenges with vertical axis technology is the oscillating aerodynamic forces. A force measurement setup has been implemented to capture the forces on a three-bladed 12 kW open site prototype. The normal force showed good agreement with simulations. An aerodynamic torque could be estimated from the system. The total electrical torque in the generator was determined from electrical measurements. Both torque estimations lacked the expected aerodynamic ripple at three times per revolution. The even torque detected is an important result and more studies are required to confirm and understand it.

    The force measurement was also used to study the loads on the turbine in parked conditions. It was discovered that there is a strong dependence on wind direction and that there is a positive torque on the turbine at stand still. The results can assist to determine the best parking strategies for an H-rotor turbine.

    The studied concept also features diode rectification of the voltage from the permanent magnet synchronous generator. Diodes are considered a cheap and robust solution for rectification at the drawback of inducing ripple in the torque and output voltage. The propagation of the torque ripple was measured on the prototype and studied with simulations and analytical expressions. One key conclusion was that the mechanical driveline of the turbine is an effective filter of the diode induced torque ripple.

    A critical speed controller was implemented on the prototype. The controller was based on optimal torque control and according to the experiments and the simulations it was able to avoid a rotational speed span. Finally, the optimal torque control was evaluated for multiple turbines with diode rectification to a common DC-link. The setup can potentially reduce the overall complexity of wind farms. The simulations suggest that stability of the system can be obtained by controlling the DC-link load as a semi constant voltage.

    The thesis is based on nine papers of which six are treated in the thesis summary.

     

    Open access
  • Elamalayil Soman, Deepak

    Multilevel Power Converters with Smart Control for Wave Energy Conversion

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The main focus of this thesis is on the power electronic converter system challenges associated with the grid integration of variable-renewable-energy (VRE) sources like wave, marine current, tidal, wind, solar etc. Wave energy conversion with grid integration is used as the key reference, considering its high energy potential to support the future clean energy requirements and due the availability of a test facility at Uppsala University. The emphasis is on the DC-link power conditioning and grid coupling of direct driven wave energy converters (DDWECs). The DDWEC reflects the random nature of its input energy to its output voltage wave shape. Thereby, it demands for intelligent power conversion techniques to facilitate the grid connection.

    One option is to improve and adapt an already existing, simple and reliable multilevel power converter technology, using smart control strategies. The proposed WECs to grid interconnection system consists of uncontrolled three-phase rectifiers, three-level boost converter(TLBC) or three-level buck-boost converter (TLBBC) and a three-level neutral point clamped (TLNPC) inverter. A new method for pulse delay control for the active balancing of DC-link capacitor voltages by using TLBC/TLBBC is presented. Duty-ratio and pulse delay control methods are combined for obtaining better voltage regulation at the DC-link and for achieving higher controllability range. The classic voltage balancing problem of the NPC inverter input, is solved efficiently using the above technique. A synchronous current compensator is used for the NPC inverter based grid coupling. Various results from both simulation and hardware testing show that the required power conditioning and power flow control can be obtained from the proposed multilevel multistage converter system.

    The entire control strategies are implemented in Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA, inside National Instruments’ CompactRIO system using LabVIEW. A contour based dead-time harmonic analysis method for TLNPC and the possibilities of having various interconnection strategies of WEC-rectifier units to complement the power converter efforts for stabilizing the DC-link, are also presented. An advanced future AC2AC direct power converter system based on Modular multilevel converter (MMC) structure developed at Siemens AG is presented briefly to demonstrate the future trends in this area.

    Open access
  • Marcusson, Birger

    Magnetic Leakage Fields and End Region Eddy Current Power Losses in Synchronous Generators

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy is done mainly with synchronous generators. They are used in hydropower generators and nuclear plants that presently account for about 80% of the electric energy production in Sweden. Because of the dominating role of the synchronous generators, it is important to minimize the power losses for efficient use of natural resources and for the economies of the electric power companies and their customers. For a synchronous machine, power loss means undesired heat production. In electric machines, there are power losses due to windage, friction in bearings, resistance in windings, remagnetization of ferromagnetic materials, and induced voltages in windings, shields and parts that are conductive but ideally should be non-conductive.

    The subject of this thesis is prediction of end region magnetic leakage fields in synchronous generators and the eddy current power losses they cause. The leakage fields also increase the hysteresis losses in the end regions. Magnetic flux that takes paths such that eddy current power losses increase in end regions of synchronous generators is considered to be leakage flux. Although only a small fraction of the total magnetic flux is end region leakage flux, it can cause hot spots, discoloration and reduce the service life of the insulation on the core laminations. If unattended, damaged insulation could lead to electric contact and eddy currents induced by the main flux between the outermost laminations. That gives further heating and deterioration of the insulation of laminations deeper into the core. In a severe case, the core can melt locally, cause a cavity, buckling and a short circuit of the main conductors. The whole stator may have to be replaced. However, the end region leakage flux primarily causes heating close to the main stator conductors which makes the damage possible to discover by visual inspection before it has become irrepairable.

    Open access
  • Kamf, Tobias

    Automated Production Technologies and Measurement Systems for Ferrite Magnetized Linear Generators

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The interest in breaking the historical dependence on fossil energy and begin moving towards more renewable energy sources is rising worldwide. This is largely due to uncertainties in the future supply of fossil fuels and the rising concerns about humanity’s role in the currently ongoing climate changes. One renewable energy source is ocean waves and Uppsala University has since the early 2000s been performing active research in this area. The Uppsala wave energy concept is centered on developing linear generators coupled to point absorbing buoys, with the generator situated on the seabed and connected to the buoy on the sea surface via a steel wire. The motion of the buoy then transfers energy to the generator, where it is converted into electricity and sent to shore for delivery into the electrical grid.

    This thesis will mainly focus on the development and evaluation of technologies used to automate the manufacturing of the translator, a central part of the linear generator, using industrial robotics. The translator is a 3 m high and 0.8 m wide three sided structure with an aluminum pipe at its center. The structure consists of alternating layers of steel plates (pole-shoes) and ferrite magnets, with a total of 72 layers per side. To perform experiments on translator assembly and production, a robot cell (centered on an IRB6650S industrial robot) complimented with relevant tools, equipment and security measures, has been designed and constructed. The mounting of the pole-shoes on the central pipe, using the industrial robot, proved to be the most challenging task to solve. However, by implementing a precise work-piece orientation calibration system, combined with selective compliance robot tools, the task could be performed with mounting speeds of up to 50 mm/s. Although progress has been made, much work still remains before fully automated translator assembly is a reality.

    A secondary topic of this thesis is the development of stand-alone measurement systems to be used in the linear generator, once it has been deployed on the seabed. The main requirements of such a measurement system is robustness, resistance to electrical noise, and power efficiency. If possible the system should also be portable and easy to use. This was solved by developing a custom measurement circuit, based on industry standard 4–20 mA current signals, combined with a portable submersible logging unit. The latest iteration of the system is small enough to be deployed and retrieved by one person, and can collect data for 10 weeks before running out of batteries. Future work in this area should focus on increasing the usability of the system.

    The third and final topic of this thesis is a short discussion of an engineering approach to kinetic energy storage, in the form of high-speed composite flywheels, and the design of two different prototypes of such flywheels. Both designs gave important insights to the research group, but a few crucial design faults unfortunately made it impossible to evaluate the full potential of the two designs.

    Open access
  • Ulvgård, Liselotte

    Wave Energy Converters: An experimental approach to onshore testing, deployments and offshore monitoring

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The wave energy converter (WEC) concept developed at Uppsala University consists of a point absorbing buoy, directly connected to a permanent magnet linear generator. Since 2006, over a dozen full scale WECs have been deployed at the Lysekil Research Site, on the west coast of Sweden. Beyond the development of the WEC concept itself, the full scale approach enables, and requires, experimental and multidisciplinary research within several peripheral areas, such as instrumentation, offshore operations, and wave power infrastructure.

    This thesis addresses technical challenges of testing, deploying and monitoring full scale WECs. It is divided accordingly into three topics: offshore measurement systems, onshore WEC testing and deployments. Each topic presents new or improved technical solutions to enable offshore wave power research.

    For the offshore measurement systems, a new portable data acquisition unit was developed, together with a new sensor system to be installed inside the WEC. The developed system offers a cheap and flexible option for short term offshore measurement ventures, when or where site infrastructure is not available. The system has been developed and tested during both onshore and offshore experiments, with promising results.

    On the topic of onshore WEC testing, the thesis presents an experimental approach for assessing the power take-off (PTO) damping of the WEC. In previous experimental studies, it has been measured via the generated electrical power, which neglects both mechanical losses and iron losses. Consequently, the full PTO force acting on the WEC has been underestimated. The thesis presents experimentally attained trends for the speed dependence of the PTO damping at different resistive loads, as measured from both generated electric power and from measurements of the buoy line force. A study was also performed on how the generator damping is affected by partial stator overlap, which varies with the translator position. In order to assess how the characterized damping behavior will affect the WEC operation at sea, two simulation case studies were performed.

    Finally, the thesis presents a new WEC deployment method, which has been developed through several deployment trials. By using only a tugboat, a WEC unit is transported and deployed, together with its buoy, in less than half a day. The procedure has proven to be faster, cheaper and safer than the previously used methods.

    Open access
  • Sjökvist, Linnea

    Wave Loads and Peak Forces on Moored Wave Energy Devices in Tsunamis and Extreme Waves

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Surface gravity waves carry enormous amounts of energy over our oceans, and if their energy could be harvested to generate electricity, it could make a significant contribution to the worlds power demand. But the survivability of wave energy devices in harsh operating conditions has proven challenging, and for wave energy to be a possibility, peak forces during storms and extreme waves must be studied and the devices behaviour understood. Although the wave power industry has benefited from research and development in traditional offshore industries, there are important differences. Traditional offshore structures are designed to minimize power absorption and to have small motion response, while wave power devices are designed to maximize power absorption and to have a high motion response. This increase the difficulty of the already challenging survivability issue. Further, nonlinear effects such as turbulence and overtopping can not be neglected in harsh operating conditions. In contrast to traditional offshore structures, it is also important to correctly account for the power take off system in a wave energy converter (WEC), as it is strongly coupled to the devices behaviour.

    The focus in this thesis is the wave loads and the peak forces that occur when a WEC with a limited stroke length is operated in waves higher than the maximum stroke length. The studied WEC is developed at Uppsala University, Sweden, and consists of a linear generator at the seabed that is directly driven by a surface buoy. A fully nonlinear CFD model is developed in the finite volume software OpenFOAM, and validated with physical wave tank experiments. It is then used to study the motion and the forces on the WEC in extreme waves; high regular waves and during tsunami events, and how the WECs behaviour is influenced by different generator parameters, such as generator damping, friction and the length of the connection line. Further, physical experiments are performed on full scale linear generators, measuring the total speed dependent damping force that can be expected for different loads. The OpenFOAM model is used to study how the measured generator behaviour affects the force in the connection line.

    Open access
  • Pérez-Loya, J. J.

    Analysis and control of magnetic forces in synchronous machines

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    In a synchronous machine, radial, tangential, and axial forces are generated. In this thesis, three different technologies to control them are proposed. The first one, involves the utilization of the radial forces that arise between the rotor and the stator. This is achieved by segmenting the rotor field winding into groups of poles and controlling their corresponding magnetization individually. This technology is particularly useful to achieve magnetic balance and to create controllable radial forces. The second technology, involves the control of the rotor field in order to influence the tangential forces that produce torque. This is achieved by inverting the rotor field winding polarity with respect to the stator field. With this technique, breaking and accelerating torques can be created. It is particularly useful to start a synchronous machine. Finally, the application of axial forces with a magnetic thrust bearing is discussed. The main benefits of this technology are higher efficiency and increased reliability.

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out within the Division of Electricity in the Department of Engineering Sciences at Uppsala University. It is based on original research supported by analytical calculations, computational simulations and extensive experimental work.

    Open access
  • Wang, Liguo

    Modelling and Advanced Control of Fully Coupled Wave Energy Converters Subject to Constraints: the Wave-to-wire Approach

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Ocean wave energy is a promising renewable source to contribute to supplying the world’s energy demand. The Division of Electricity at Uppsala University is developing a technology to capture energy from ocean waves with a wave energy converter (WEC) consisting of a linear permanent magnet generator and a point absorber. The linear generator is placed on sea bed and is driven directly by the floating absorber. Since March 2006, multiple wave energy converters have been deployed on the Swedish west coast outside the town of Lysekil. The technology is verified by long-term operation during at sea and satisfactory reliability of the electricity generation.

    This thesis focuses on developing advanced control strategies for fully coupled wave energy converters subject to constraints. A nonlinear control strategy is studied in detail for a single WEC subject to constraints under regular and irregular waves. Besides, two coordinated control strategies are developed to investigate the performance of a wave energy farm subject to constraints. The performance of the WECs using these control strategies are investigated in case studies, and optimal PTO damping coefficients are found to maximize the output power. The results show that these control strategies can significantly improve the performance of the WECs, in terms of mean power, compared to a conventional control.

    Besides these control strategies, a wave-to-wire simulation platform is built to study the power generation control of the WEC subject to constraints.  The wave-to-wire simulation platform allows both nonlinear and linear control force. The results show that there is a good agreement between the desired value and the actual value after advanced control.

    Open access
  • Hedlund, Magnus

    Electrified Integrated Kinetic Energy Storage

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The electric car is a technically efficient driveline, although it is demanding in terms of the primary energy source. Most trips are below 50 km and the mean power required for maintaining speed is quite low, but the system has to be able to both provide long range and high maximum power for acceleration. By separating power and energy handling in a hybrid driveline, the primary energy source, e.g. a battery can be optimised for specific energy (decreasing costs and material usage). Kinetic energy storage in the form of flywheels can handle the short, high power bursts of acceleration and decceleration with high efficiency.

    This thesis focuses on the design and construction of flywheels in which an electric machine and a low-loss magnetic suspension are considered an integral part of the composite shell, in an effort to increase specific energy. A method of numerically optimising shrink-fitted composite shells was developed and implemented in software, based on a plane stress assumption, with a grid search optimiser. A composite shell was designed, analysed numerically and constructed, with an integrated permanent magnet synchronous machine. Passive axial lift bearings were optimised, analysed numerically for losses and lift force, and verified with experiments. Active radial electromagnets optimised for high stiffness per ohmic loss were built and analysed in terms of force and stiffness, both numerically and experimentally. Electronics and a high-speed measurement system were designed to drive the magnetic bearings and the electric machine. The control of these systems were implemented in an FPGA, and a notch-filter was designed to suppress eigenfrequencies to achieve levitation of the rotor. The spin-down losses of the flywheel in vacuum were found to be 1.7 W/Wh, evaluated at 1000 rpm.

    A novel switched reluctance machine concept was developed for hollow cylinder flywheels. This class of flywheels are shaft-less, in an effort to avoid the shaft-to-rim connection. A small-scale prototype was built and verified to correspond well to analytical and numerical models, by indirect measurement of the inductance through a system identification method.

    Open access
  • Carpman, Nicole

    Resource characterization and variability studies for marine current power

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Producing electricity from marine renewable resources is a research area that develops continuously. The field of tidal energy is on the edge to progress from the prototype stage to the commercial stage. However, tidal resource characterization, and the effect of tidal turbines on the flow, is still an ongoing research area in which this thesis aims to contribute.

    In this thesis, measurements of flow velocities have been performed at three kinds of sites. Firstly, a tidal site has been investigated for its resource potential in a fjord in Norway. Measurements have been performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler to map the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow. Results show that currents are in the order of 2 m/s in the center of the channel. Furthermore, the flow is highly bi-directional between ebb and flood flows. The site thus has potential for in-stream energy conversion. Secondly, a river site serves as an experimental site for a marine current energy converter that has been designed at Uppsala University and deployed in Dalälven, Söderfors. The flow rate at the site is regulated by an upstream hydro power plant, making the site suitable for experiments on the performance of the vertical axis turbine in a natural environment. The turbine was run in steady discharge flows and measurements were performed to characterize the extent of the wake. Lastly, at an ocean current site, the effect that transiting ferries may have on submerged devices was investigated. Measurements were conducted with two sonar systems to obtain an underwater view of the wake caused by a propeller and a water jet thruster respectively.

    Furthermore, the variability of the intermittent renewable sources wind, solar, wave and tidal energy was investigated for the Nordic countries. All of the sources have distinctly different variability features, which is advantageous when combining power generated from them and introducing it on the electricity grid. Tidal variability is mainly due to four aspects: the tidal regime, the tidal cycle, local bathymetry causing turbulence, asymmetries etc. and weather effects. Models of power output from the four sources was set up and combined in different energy mixes for a “highly renewable” and a “fully renewable” scenario. By separating the resulting power time series into different frequency bands (long-, mid-, mid/short-, and short-term components) it was possible to minimize the variability on different time scales. It was concluded that a wise combination of intermittent renewable sources may lower the variability on short and long time scales, but increase the variability on mid and mid/short time scales.

    The tidal power variability in Norway was then investigated separately. The predictability of tidal currents has great advantages when planning electricity availability from tidal farms. However, the continuously varying tide from maximum power output to minimum output several times per day increases the demand for backup power or storage. The phase shift between tidal sites introduces a smoothing effect on hourly basis but the tidal cycle, with spring and neap tide simultaneously in large areas, will inevitably affect the power availability.

    Open access
  • Yang, Weijia

    Hydropower plants and power systems: Dynamic processes and control for stable and efficient operation

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    As the largest global renewable source, hydropower shoulders a large portion of the regulation duty in many power systems. New challenges are emerging from variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, the increasing scale and complexity of hydropower plants (HPPs) and power grid. Stable and efficient operation of HPPs and their interaction with power systems is of great importance.

    Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and on-site measurement are adopted as main study methods in this thesis. Various numerical models of HPPs are established, with different degrees of complexity for different purposes. The majority of the analysis and results are based on eight HPPs in Sweden and China.

    Stable operation (frequency stability and rotor angle stability) and efficient operation are two important goals. Regarding the stable operation, various operating conditions are analysed; the response time of primary frequency control (PFC) and the system stability of isolated operation are investigated. A fundamental study on hydraulic-mechanical-electrical coupling mechanisms for small signal stability of HPPs is conducted. A methodology is proposed to quantify the contribution to the damping of low frequency oscillations from hydraulic turbines. The oscillations, with periods ranging from less than one up to hundreds of seconds, are analysed.

    Regarding the efficient operation, a description and an initial analysis of wear and tear of turbines are presented; a controller filter is proposed as a solution for wear reduction of turbines and maintaining the frequency quality of power systems; then the study is further extended by proposing a framework that combines technical plant operation with economic indicators, to obtain relative values of regulation burden and performance of PFC.

    The results show that the coupling between the hydraulic-mechanical subsystem and the electrical subsystem can be considerable and should be considered with higher attention. Effectiveness and applicability of different numerical models are shown, supplying suggestions for further model optimization. For the influence from power systems on HPPs, the dynamic processes and corresponding control strategies of HPPs under diverse disturbances and requirements from power systems are addressed. For the influence from HPPs on power systems, quantifications of frequency quality and the hydraulic damping are conducted utilising proposed methodologies.

    Open access
  • Nøland, Jonas Kristiansen

    A New Paradigm for Large Brushless Hydrogenerators: Advantages Beyond the Static System

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The grid code, FIKS, from the Norwegian transmission system operator (TSO), Statnett, states that synchronous generators > 25MVA, must have a static excitation system. However, an improved brushless excitation system is in operation on some commercial power plants (36MVA, 93.75rpm & 52MVA, 166.67rpm) with grid-assisting performance beyond the conventional static system. The convenional diode bridge is replaced with a remote-controlled thyristor bridge on the shaft. If wireless communication is not allowed, a control signal through brushes should be employed instead. The thesis explores the expected new era for large brushless hydrogenerators. The proposed brushless system have benefits of reduced regular maintenance due to elimination of brushes and reduced unscheduled maintenance due to redundancy; causing a redused cost-of-energy. A six-phase exciter design with a hybrid-mode thyristor bridge interface leads to improved fault-tolerance, better controllability, minimized torque pulsations and reduced armature currents of the exciter. Excitation boosting (EB) capability is included in the brushless system without additional components or circuitry, contrary to the static excitation system. The brushless excitation system is made insensitive to voltage dips in the interconnected grid, causing improved fault ride-through (FRT) capability and power system stabilizer (PSS) actions. 

    Open access
  • Möllerström, Erik

    Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today more common and economically feasible horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages which still make them interesting, for example, the VAWTs can have the drive train at ground level and it has been argued that they have lower noise emission. Other proposed advantages are suitability for both up-scaling and floating offshore platforms.

    The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between Halmstad University and Uppsala University. A 200-kW semi-guy-wired VAWT H-rotor, owned by Uppsala University but situated in Falkenberg close to Halmstad, has been the main subject of the research although most results can be generalized to suit a typical H-rotor.

    This thesis has three main topics regarding VAWTs: (1) how the wind energy extraction is influenced by turbulence, (2) aerodynamical noise generation and (3) eigenfrequencies of the semi-guy-wired tower.

    The influence from turbulence on the wind energy extraction is studied by evaluating logged operational data and examining how the power curve and the tip-speed ratio for maximum Cp is impacted by turbulence. The work has showed that the T1-turbine has a good ability to extract wind energy at turbulent conditions, indicating an advantage in energy extraction at turbulent sites for VAWTs compared to HAWTs.The noise characteristics are studied experimentally, and models of the two most likely aerodynamic noise mechanisms are applied. Here, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise source rather than turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise (TBL-TE) which is the most important noise mechanism for HAWTs. The overall noise emission has also been measured and proven low compared to similar sized HAWTs.

    The eigenfrequencies of a semi-guy-wired tower are also studied. Analytical expressions describing the first-mode eigenfrequency of both tower and guy wire has been derived and verified by experiments and simulations.

    Open access
  • Saarinen, Linn

    The Frequency of the Frequency: On Hydropower and Grid Frequency Control

    2017.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Variations in the electricity consumption and production connected to the power system have to be balanced by active control. Hydropower is the most important balancing resource in the Nordic system, and will become even more important as the share of variable renewable energy sources increases. This thesis concerns balancing of active power, especially the real-time balancing called frequency control. The thesis starts in a description of the situation today, setting up models for the behaviour of hydropower units and the power system relevant to frequency control, and comparing the models with experiments on several hydropower units and on the response of the Nordic grid. It is found that backlash in the regulating mechanisms in hydropower units have a strong impact on the quality of the delivered frequency control. Then, an analysis of what can be done right now to improve frequency control and decrease its costs is made, discussing governor tuning, filters and strategies for allocation of frequency control reserves. The results show that grid frequency quality could be improved considerably by retuning of hydropower governors. However, clear technical requirements and incentives for good frequency control performance are needed. The last part of the thesis concerns the impact from increased electricity production from variable renewable energy sources. The induced balancing need in terms of energy storage volume and balancing power is quantified, and it is found that with large shares of wind power in the system, the energy storage need over the intra-week time horizon is drastically increased. Reduced system inertia due to higher shares of inverter connected production is identified as a problem for the frequency control of the system. A new, linear synthetic inertia concept is suggested to replace the lost inertia and damping. It is shown that continuously active, linear synthetic inertia can improve the frequency quality in normal operation and decrease wear and tear of hydropower units delivering frequency control.

    Open access

Publications

2016

  • Baudoin, Antoine

    Cooling Strategies for Wave Power Conversion Systems

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The Division for Electricity of Uppsala University is developing a wave power concept. The energy of the ocean waves is harvested with wave energy converters, consisting of one buoy and one linear generator. The units are connected in a submerged substation. The mechanical design is kept as simple as possible to ensure reliability.

    The submerged substation includes power electronics and different types of electrical power components. Due to the high cost of maintenance operations at sea, the reliability of electrical systems for offshore renewable energy is a major issue in the pursuit of making the electricity production economically viable. Therefore, proper thermal management is essential to avoid the components being damaged by excessive temperature increases.

    The chosen cooling strategy is fully passive, and includes no fans. It has been applied in the second substation prototype with curved heatsinks mounted on the inner wall of the pressurized vessel. This strategy has been evaluated with a thermal model for the completed substation. First of all, 3D-CFD models were implemented for selected components of the electrical conversion system. The results from these submodels were used to build a lumped parameter model at the system level.

    The comprehensive thermal study of the substation indicates that the rated power in the present configuration is around 170 kW. The critical components were identified. The transformers and the inverters are the limiting components for high DC-voltage and low DC-voltage respectively. The DC-voltage—an important parameter in the control strategy for the WEC—was shown to have the most significant effect on the temperature limitation.

    As power diodes are the first step of conversion, they are subject to large power fluctuations. Therefore, we studied thermal cycling for these components. The results indicated that the junction undergoes repeated temperature cycles, where the amplitude increased with the square root of the absorbed power.

    Finally, an array of generic heat sources was optimized. We designed an experimental setup to investigate conjugate natural convection on a vertical plate with flush-mounted heat sources. The influence of the heaters distribution was evaluated for different dissipated powers. Measurements were used for validation of a CFD model. We proposed optimal distributions for up to 36 heat sources. The cooling capacity was maximized while the used area was minimized.

    Open access
  • Li, Wei

    Numerical Modelling and Statistical Analysis of Ocean Wave Energy Converters and Wave Climates

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Ocean wave energy is considered to be one of the important potential renewable energy resources for sustainable development. Various wave energy converter technologies have been proposed to harvest the energy from ocean waves. This thesis is based on the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University. The research in this thesis focuses on the foundation optimization and the power absorption optimization of the wave energy converters and on the wave climate modelling at the Lysekil wave converter test site.

    The foundation optimization study of the gravity-based foundation of the linear wave energy converter is based on statistical analysis of wave climate data measured at the Lysekil test site. The 25 years return extreme significant wave height and its associated mean zero-crossing period are chosen as the maximum wave for the maximum heave and surge forces evaluation.

    The power absorption optimization study on the linear generator wave energy converter is based on the wave climate at the Lysekil test site. A frequency-domain simplified numerical model is used with the power take-off damping coefficient chosen as the control parameter for optimizing the power absorption. The results show a large improvement with an optimized power take-off damping coefficient adjusted to the characteristics of the wave climate at the test site.

    The wave climate modelling studies are based on the wave climate data measured at the Lysekil test site. A new mixed distribution method is proposed for modelling the significant wave height. This method gives impressive goodness of fit with the measured wave data. A copula method is applied to the bivariate joint distribution of the significant wave height and the wave period. The results show an excellent goodness of fit for the Gumbel model. The general applicability of the proposed mixed-distribution method and the copula method are illustrated with wave climate data from four other sites. The results confirm the good performance of the mixed-distribution and the Gumbel copula model for the modelling of significant wave height and bivariate wave climate.

    Open access
  • Sjökvist, Stefan

    Demagnetization and Fault Simulations of Permanent Magnet Generators

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Permanent magnets are today widely used in electrical machines of all sorts. With their increase in popularity, the amount of research has increased as well. In the wind power project at Uppsala University permanent magnet synchronous generators have been studied for over a decade. However, a tool for studying demagnetization has not been available. This Ph.D. thesis covers the development of a simulation model in a commercial finite element method software capable of studying demagnetization. Further, the model is also capable of simulating the connected electrical circuit of the generator. The simulation model has continuously been developed throughout the project. The simulation model showed good agreement compared to experiment, see paper IV, and has in paper III and V successfully been utilized in case studies. The main focus of these case studies has been different types of short-circuit faults in the electrical system of the generator, at normal or at an elevated temperature. Paper I includes a case study with the latest version of the model capable of handling multiple short-circuits events, which was not possible in earlier versions of the simulation model. The influence of the electrical system on the working point ripple of the permanent magnets was evaluated in paper II. In paper III and VI, an evaluation study of the possibility of creating a generator with an interchangeable rotor is presented.  A Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) rotor was exchanged for a ferrite rotor with the electrical properties almost maintained.

    Open access
  • Hong, Yue

    Numerical Modelling and Mechanical Studies on a Point Absorber Type Wave Energy Converter

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Oceans cover two thirds of the Earth’s surface and the energy potential of ocean waves as a renewable energy source is huge. It would therefore be a tremendous achievement if the vast mechanical energy in waves was converted into a form of energy that could be used successfully by society. For years, scientists and engineers have endeavored to exploit this renewable energy by inventing various generators designed to transform wave energy into electrical energy. Generally, this sort of generator is called a Wave Energy Converter (WEC).

    In this thesis, the research is based on the WEC developed in the Lysekil Project. The Lysekil Project is led by a research group at Uppsala University and has a test site located on the west coast of Sweden. The project started in 2002. So far, more than ten prototypes of the WEC have been deployed and relevant experiments have been carried out at the test site. The WEC developed at Uppsala University can be categorized as a point absorber. It consists of a direct-drive linear generator connected to a floating buoy. The linear generator is deployed on the seabed and driven by a floating buoy to extract wave energy. The absorbed energy is converted to electricity and transmitted to a measuring station on land.

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on building a linear generator model which is able to predict the performance of the Lysekil WEC. Studies are also carried out on the damping behavior of the WEC under the impact of different sea climates. The purpose is to optimize the energy absorption with a specific optimal damping coefficient. The obtained results indicate an optimal damping for the Lysekil WEC which can be used for optimizing the damping control.

    Additionally, the impact two central engineering design features (the translator weight and the stroke length) are investigated. The aim is to find a reasonable structural design for the generator which balances the cost and the energy production.

    Open access
  • Apelfröjd, Senad

    Grid Connection of Permanent Magnet Generator Based Renewable Energy Systems

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Renewable energy is harnessed from continuously replenishing natural processes. Some commonly known are sunlight, water, wind, tides, geothermal heat and various forms of biomass. The focus on renewable energy has over the past few decades intensified greatly. This thesis contributes to the research on developing renewable energy technologies, within the wind power, wave power and marine current power projects at the division of Electricity, Uppsala University. In this thesis grid connection of permanent magnet generator based renewable energy sources is evaluated.

    A tap transformer based grid connection system has been constructed and experimentally evaluated for a vertical axis wind turbine. Full range variable speed operation of the turbine is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. This removes the need for a DC/DC step or an active rectifier on the generator side of the full frequency converter and thereby reduces system complexity. Experiments and simulations of the system for variable speed operation are done and efficiency and harmonic content are evaluated. 

    The work presented in the thesis has also contributed to the design, construction and evaluation of a full-scale offshore marine substation for wave power intended to grid connect a farm of wave energy converters. The function of the marine substation has been experimentally tested and the substation is ready for deployment. Results from the system verification are presented. Special focus is on the transformer losses and transformer in-rush currents.

    A control and grid connection system for a vertical axis marine current energy converter has been designed and constructed. The grid connection is done with a back-to-back 2L-3L system with a three level cascaded H-bridge converter grid side. The system has been tested in the laboratory and is ready to be installed at the experimental site. Results from the laboratory testing of the system are presented.

    Open access
  • Olauson, Jon

    Modelling Wind Power for Grid Integration Studies

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    When wind power and other intermittent renewable energy (IRE) sources begin to supply a significant part of the load, concerns are often raised about the inherent intermittency and unpredictability of these sources. In order to study the impact from higher IRE penetration levels on the power system, integration studies are regularly performed. The model package presented and evaluated in Papers I–IV provides a comprehensive methodology for simulating realistic time series of wind generation and forecasts for such studies. The most important conclusion from these papers is that models based on coarse meteorological datasets give very accurate results, especially in combination with statistical post-processing. Advantages with our approach include a physical coupling to the weather and wind farm characteristics, over 30 year long, 5-minute resolution time series, freely and globally available input data and computational times in the order of minutes. In this thesis, I make the argument that our approach is generally preferable to using purely statistical models or linear scaling of historical measurements.

    In the variability studies in Papers V–VII, several IRE sources were considered. An important conclusion is that these sources and the load have very different variability characteristics in different frequency bands. Depending on the magnitudes and correlations of these fluctuation, different time scales will become more or less challenging to balance. With a suitable mix of renewables, there will be little or no increase in the needs for balancing on the seasonal and diurnal timescales, even for a fully renewable Nordic power system. Fluctuations with periods between a few days and a few months are dominant for wind power and net load fluctuations of this type will increase strongly for high penetrations of IRE, no matter how the sources are combined. According to our studies, higher capacity factors, more offshore wind power and overproduction/curtailment would be beneficial for the power system.

    Open access
  • Diaz, Oscar

    Numerical modelling of positive electrical discharges in long air gaps

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This dissertation deals with research on the numerical modelling of electrical discharges in laboratory long air gaps excited with positive switching impulses. It begins with the preliminary work of several scientists during the last decades, making a detailed analysis of different approaches for modelling all the stages in a full discharge. The relations between these models are identified as well as the effect on the outcome when modifying some important input parameters.

    The general concept describing the discharge phenomenon usually includes three main elements: the streamer inception, the streamer-to-leader transition and the stable leader propagation. These elements are present in many of the analysed models and the main differences between them are the assumptions and simplifications made by each author at a specific point in their methodologies. The models are usually simplified by assigning experimentally determined values to physical constants pertinent to different stages of the full discharge. These constants are the potential gradient in the leader-corona region to sustain the leader propagation, the charge per unit length along the leader channel which depends on the atmospheric conditions and the voltage impulse wave shape; and the leader propagation velocity, which is closely related to the discharge current. The dissertation includes the results of laboratory work related the study of leaders in long gap discharges, electrical parameters and optical records. By reconstructing the three-dimensional leader propagation for the rod-to-plane configuration, it was possible to study the random tortuous path followed by the leader as it propagates.

    One important element included in the discharge modelling is the representation of the leader-corona region in front of the leader tip as it propagates towards the grounded electrode. For the calculation of the net charge available in the leader-corona region, two new methodologies were pro-posed based on the electrostatic potential distribution obtained from a finite element method solver. This allowed the inclusion of more elements representing different parts of the discharge in the simulation domain.

    In the final part, all the analysed elements and the new proposed ones were included in a new methodology for the modelling of electrical dis-charges in long air laboratory gaps. The results obtained from this methodology were compared to experimental data. A good agreement was found between the simulation results and the experimental data.

    Open access
  • Castellucci, Valeria

    Sea Level Compensation System for Wave Energy Converters

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University consists of a linear generator at the seabed driven by the motion of a buoy on the water surface. The energy absorbed by the generator is negatively affected by variations of the mean sea level caused by tides, changes in barometric pressure, strong winds, and storm surges.

    The work presented in this doctoral thesis aims to investigate the losses in energy absorption for the present generation wave energy converter due to the effect of sea level variations, mainly caused by tides. This goal is achieved through the modeling of the interaction between the waves and the point absorber. An estimation of the economic cost that these losses imply is also made. Moreover, solutions on how to reduce the negative effect of sea level variations are discussed. To this end, two compensation systems which adjust the length of the connection line between the floater and the generator are designed, and the first prototype is built and tested near the Lysekil research site.

    The theoretical study assesses the energy loss at about 400 coastal points all over the world and for one generator design. The results highlight critical locations where the need for a compensation system appears compelling. The same hydro-mechanic model is applied to a specific site, the Wave Hub on the west coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom, where the energy loss is calculated to be about 53 %. The experimental work led to the construction of a buoy equipped with a screw jack together with its control, measurement and communication systems. The prototype, suitable for sea level variations of small range, is tested and its performance evaluated. A second prototype, suitable for high range variations, is also designed and is currently under construction.

    One main conclusion is that including the compensation systems in the design of the wave energy converter will increase the competitiveness of the technology from an economic point of view by decreasing its cost per kWh. The need for a cost-effective wave energy converter with increased survivability emphasizes the importance of the presented research and its future development.

    Open access
  • Lundin, Staffan

    Marine Current Energy Conversion

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Marine currents, i.e. water currents in oceans and rivers, constitute a large renewable energy resource. This thesis presents research done on the subject of marine current energy conversion in a broad sense.

    A review of the tidal energy resource in Norway is presented, with the conclusion that tidal currents ought to be an interesting option for Norway in terms of renewable energy.

    The design of marine current energy conversion devices is studied. It is argued that turbine and generator cannot be seen as separate entities but must be designed and optimised as a unit for a given conversion site. The influence of support structure for the turbine blades on the efficiency of the turbine is studied, leading to the conclusion that it may be better to optimise a turbine for a lower flow speed than the maximum speed at the site.

    The construction and development of a marine current energy experimental station in the River Dalälven at Söderfors is reported. Measurements of the turbine's power coefficient indicate that it is possible to build efficient turbines for low flow speeds. Experiments at the site are used for investigations into different load control methods and for validation of a numerical model of the energy conversion system and the model's ability to predict system behaviour in response to step changes in operational tip speed ratio.

    A method for wake measurements is evaluated and found to be useful within certain limits. Simple models for turbine runaway behaviour are derived, of which one is shown by comparison with experimental results to predict the behaviour well.

    Open access
  • Lejerskog, Erik

    Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Operational Wave Energy Converters

    2016.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis studies wave energy converters developed at Uppsala University. The wave energy converters are of point absorbing type with direct driven linear generators. The aim has been to study generator design with closed stator slots as well as offshore experimental studies.

    By closing the stator slots, the harmonic content in the magnetic flux density is reduced and as a result the cogging forces in the generator are reduced as well. By reducing these forces, the noise and vibrations from the generator can be lowered. The studies have shown a significant reduction in the cogging forces in the generator. Moreover, by closing the slots, the magnetic flux finds a short-cut through the closed slots and will lower the magnetic flux linking the windings.

    The experimental studies have focused on the motion of the translator. The weight of the translator has a significant impact on the power absorption, especially in the downward motion. Two different experiments have been studied with two different translator weights. The results show that with a higher translator weight the power absorption is more evenly produced between the upward and downward motion as was expected from the simulation models. Furthermore, studies on the influence of the changing active area have been conducted which show some benefits with a changing active area during the downward motion. The experimental results also indicate snatch-loads for the wave energy converter with a lower translator weight.

    Within this thesis results from a comparative study between two WECs with almost identical properties have been presented. The generators electrical properties and the buoy volumes are the same, but with different buoy heights and diameters. Moreover, experimental studies including the conversion from AC to DC have been achieved.

    The work in this thesis is part of a larger wave power project at Uppsala University. The project studies the whole process from the energy absorption from the waves to the connection to the electrical grid. The project has a test-site at the west coast of Sweden near the town of Lysekil, where wave energy systems have been studied since 2004.

    Open access

Publications

2015

  • Hai, Ling

    Modelling Wave Power by Equivalent Circuit Theory

    2015.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The motion of ocean waves can be captured and converted into usable electricity. This indicates that wave power has the potential to supply electricity to grids like wind or solar power. A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC) system has been developed for power production at Uppsala University. This system contains a semi-submerged buoy on the water surface driving a linear synchronous generator placed on the seabed. The concept is to connect many small units together, to form a wave farm for large-scale electricity generation.

    A lot of effort has gone into researching how to enhance the power absorption from each WEC unit. These improvements are normally done separately for the buoy, the generator or the electrical system, due to the fact that modelling the dynamic behavior of the entire WEC system is complicated and time consuming. Therefore, a quick, yet simple, assessment tool is needed. 

    This thesis focuses on studying the use of the equivalent circuit as a WEC system modelling tool. Based on the force analysis, the physical elements in an actual WEC system can be converted into electrical components. The interactions between the regular waves, the buoy, and the Power Take-off mechanism can be simulated together in one circuit network. WEC performance indicators like the velocity, the force, and the power can be simulated directly from the circuit model. Furthermore, the annual absorbed electric energy can be estimated if the wave data statistics are known.

    The linear and non-linear equivalent circuit models developed in this thesis have been validated with full scale offshore experimental results. Comparisons indicate that the simplest linear circuit can predict the absorbed power reasonably well, while it is not so accurate in estimating the peak force in the connection line. The non-linear circuit model generates better estimations in both cases. To encourage researchers from different backgrounds to adapt and apply the circuit model, an instruction on how to establish a non-linear equivalent circuit model is supplied, as well as on how to apply the model to accelerate the decision making process when planning a WEC system.

    Open access
  • Dyachuk, Eduard

    Aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Development of Simulation Tools and Experiments

    2015.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis combines measurements with the development of simulation tools for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). Numerical models of aerodynamic blade forces are developed and validated against experiments. The studies were made on VAWTs which were operated at open sites. Significant progress within the modeling of aerodynamics of VAWTs has been achieved by the development of new simulation tools and by conducting experimental studies.        

    An existing dynamic stall model was investigated and further modified for the conditions of the VAWT operation. This model was coupled with a streamtube model and assessed against blade force measurements from a VAWT with curved blades, operated by Sandia National Laboratories. The comparison has shown that the accuracy of the streamtube model has been improved compared to its previous versions. The dynamic stall model was further modified by coupling it with a free vortex model. The new model has become less dependent on empirical constants and has shown an improved accuracy.    

    Unique blade force measurements on a 12 kW VAWT were conducted. The turbine was operated north of Uppsala. Load cells were used to measure the forces on the turbine. A comprehensive analysis of the measurement accuracy has been performed and the major error sources have been identified.

    The measured aerodynamic normal force has been presented and analyzed for a wide range of operational conditions including dynamic stall, nominal operation and the region of high flow expansion. The improved vortex model has been validated against the data from the new measurements. The model agrees quite well with the experiments for the regions of nominal operation and high flow expansion. Although it does not reproduce all measurements in great detail, it is suggested that the presented vortex model can be used for preliminary estimations of blade forces due to its high computational speed and reasonable accuracy.

    Open access

Publications

2014

  • Haikonen, Kalle

    Underwater radiated noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The conversion of wave energy into electrical energy has the potential to become a clean and sustainable form of renewable energy conversion. However, like all forms of energy conversion it will inevitably have an impact on the marine environment, although not in the form of emissions of hazardous substances (gases, oils or chemicals associated with anticorrosion). Possible environmental issues associated with wave energy conversion include electromagnetic fields, alteration of sedimentation and hydrologic regimes and underwater radiated noise.

    Underwater noise has the potential to propagate over long distances and thus have the potential to disturb marine organisms far away from the noise source. There is great variation in the ability to perceive sound between marine organisms, one sound that is clearly audible to one species can be completely inaudible to another. Thus, to be able to determine potential environmental impact from WECs associated with underwater noise, the noise radiated from the WECs must be known. This thesis presents results from studies on the underwater radiated noise from four different full-scale WECs in the Lysekil Wave Power Project.

    Hydrophones were used to measure the underwater radiated noise from operating point absorbing linear WECs. The main purpose was to study the radiated noise from the operating WECs with emphasis on characteristics such as spectrum levels, Sound Pressure Level (SPL), noise duration and repetition rate. This to be able to determine the origin of the noise and if possible, implement design changes to minimize radiated noise.

    The results identified two main operational noises (transients with the bulk of the energy in frequencies <1 kHz). The SPL of the radiated noise fluctuated significantly, depending on wave height. Broadband SPLrms of the measurements ranged between ~110 dB and ~140 dB re 1 µPa and SPLpeak of specific noises ranges between ~140 and ~180 dB re µPa. Audibility was estimated range from 1km to 15 km depending critically on species and on assumptions of propagation loss. The noise is not expected to have any negative effects on behaviour or mask any signals, unless in the vicinity (<150m) of the WECs in significant wave heights. No physical damage, even in close vicinity are expected on either fish or marine mammals.

    Having the aim to have as little impact on the environment a possible, these studies are important. This way precautions can be implemented early in the technical development of this kind of renewable energy converters. The benefits from the WECs the Lysekil wave power project are believed to outweigh possible environmental impacts due to underwater radiated noise.

    Open access
  • Ahmad, Mohd Riduan

    Interaction of Lightning Flashes with Wireless Communication Networks: Special Attention to Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    In this thesis, the features of electric field signatures of narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) generated by cloud flashes are investigated and their effects on wireless communication systems are studied. A handful amount of NBPs (14.5%) have been observed to occur as part of cloud-to-ground flashes in South Malaysia. Occurrence of NBPs in Sweden has been reported for the first time in this thesis. The electric field waveform characteristics of NBPs as part of cloud-to-ground flashes were similar to isolated NBPs found in Sweden and South Malaysia and also to those isolated NBPs reported by previous studies from various geographical areas. This is a strong indication that their breakdown mechanisms are similar at any latitudes regardless of geographical areas.

    A comparative study on the occurrence of NBPs and other forms of lightning flashes across various geographical areas ranging from northern regions to the tropics is presented. As the latitude decreased from Uppsala, Sweden (59.8°N) to South Malaysia (1.5°N), the percentage of NBP emissions relative to the total number of lightning flashes increased significantly from 0.13% to 12%. Occurrences of positive NBPs were more common than negative NBPs at all observed latitudes. However, as latitudes decreased, the negative NBP emissions increased significantly from 20% (Sweden) to 45% (South Malaysia). Factors involving mixed-phase region elevations and vertical extents of thundercloud tops are invoked to explain the observed results. These factors are fundamentally latitude dependent.

    In this thesis, the interaction between microwave radiations emitted by cloud-to-ground and cloud flashes events and bits transmission in wireless communication networks are also presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such effects are investigated in the literature. Narrow bipolar pulses were found to be the strongest source of interference that interfered with the bits transmission.

    Open access
  • Esa, Mona Riza Mohd

    Temporal and Wavelet Characteristics of Initial Breakdown and Narrow Bipolar Pulses of Lightning Flashes

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Temporal and wavelet characteristics of initial breakdown pulses are meticulously studied especially during the earliest moment of lightning events. Any possible features during the earliest moment that may exist which lead to either negative cloud-to-ground (CG), positive cloud-to-ground, cloud or isolated breakdown flashes in Sweden are investigated. Moreover, the occurrence of narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) as part of a CG event that has been recorded from tropical thunderstorms are also included in the investigation. Electric field signatures selected from a collection of waveforms recorded using fast electric field broadband antenna system installed in Uppsala, Sweden and Skudai, South Malaysia are then carefully analyzed in order to observe any similarities or/and differences of their features.

    Temporal analysis reveals that there are significant distinctions within the first 1 ms among different types of lightning flashes. It is found that a negative CG flash tends to radiate pulses more frequently than other flashes and a cloud flash tends to radiate shorter pulses than other flashes but less frequently when compared to negative CG and isolated breakdown flashes. Perhaps, the ionization process during the earliest moment of negative CG flashes is more rapid than other discharges. Using a wavelet transformation, it can be suggested that the first electric field pulse of both negative CG and cloud flashes experiences a more rapid and extensive ionization process compared to positive CG and isolated breakdown flashes.

    Further temporal analysis on NBPs found to occur as part of CG flashes show the disparity of the normalized electric field amplitude between the NBPs prior to and after the first return stroke. This indicates that the NBPs intensities were influenced by the return stroke events and they occurred in the same thundercloud. The similarity between the temporal characteristics of NBPs as part of CG flashes and isolated NBPs suggests that their breakdown mechanisms might be similar.

    Open access
  • Ekström, Rickard

    Offshore Marine Substation for Grid-Connection of Wave Power Farms: An Experimental Approach

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Wave power is a renewable energy source with great potential, which is why there are more than a hundred ongoing wave power projects around the world. At the Division of Electricity, Uppsala University, a point-absorber type wave energy converter (WEC) has been proposed and developed. The WEC consists of a linear synchronous generator placed on the seabed, connected to a buoy floating on the surface. Power is absorbed by heave motion of the buoy, and converted into electric energy by the generator.

    The point-absorber WEC must be physically much smaller than the wavelength of the incoming waves, and can therefore not be scaled to very high power levels. Instead, the total power output is boosted by increasing the number of WECs, connecting them in wave power farms. To transfer the electric energy to the grid, an intermediate marine substation is proposed, where an AC/DC/AC conversion step is performed.

    Within this PhD-work, a full-scale offshore marine substation has been designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated. The substation is rated for grid-connection of seven WECs to the local 1kV-grid, and is placed on the seabed 3km off the coast at a depth of 25m. Various aspects of the substation design have been considered, including the mechanical and electrical systems, the WEC electrical interface, offshore operations and the automatic grid connection control system. A tap change circuit and different multilevel topologies have also been proposed.

    This dissertation has an experimental approach, validating a major part of the work with lab results. The final substation electrical circuit has been tested at rated grid voltage with a fluctuating input power source. The efficiency has been measured and the implemented functions are verified. Offshore operations have been successfully carried out and offshore wave farm data is expected in the nearby future.  

    Open access
  • Kovi, Kiran Kumar

    Diamond Based Electronics and Valleytronics: An experimental study

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Diamond is a promising semiconductor material for high power, high voltage, high temperature and high frequency applications due to its remarkable material properties: it has the highest thermal conductivity, it is the hardest material, chemically inert, radiation hard and has the widest transparency in the electromagnetic spectrum. It also exhibits excellent electrical properties like high breakdown field, high mobilities and a wide bandgap.  Hence, it may find applications in extreme conditions out of reach for conventional semiconductor materials, e.g. in high power density systems, high temperature conditions, automotive and aerospace industries, and space applications. 

     

    With the recent progress in the growth of high purity single-crystalline CVD diamond, the realization of electronic devices is now possible. Natural and HPHT diamonds inevitably have too high a concentration of impurities and defects for electrical applications. To develop efficient electronic devices based on diamond, it is crucial to understand charge transport properties. Time-of-flight is one of the most powerful methods used to study charge transport properties like mobility, drift velocity and charge collection efficiency in highly resistive semiconductors, such as diamond. For commercial diamond devices to become a reality, it is necessary to have an effective surface passivation since the passivation determines the ability of a device to withstand high surface electric fields. Surface passivation studies on intrinsic SC-CVD diamond using materials like silicon oxide, silicon nitride and high-k materials have been conducted and observations reveal an increase in measured hole mobilities. Planar MOS capacitor structures form the basic building block of MOSFETs. Consequently, the understanding of MOS structures is crucial to make MOSFETs based on diamond. Planar MOS structures with aluminum oxide as gate dielectric were fabricated on boron doped diamond. The phenomenon of inversion was observed for the first time in diamond. In addition, low temperature hole transport in the range of 10-80 K has been investigated and the results are used to identify the type of scattering mechanisms affecting hole transport at these temperatures.

    To utilize the potential of diamonds properties and with diamond being the hardest and most chemically inert material, new processing technologies are needed to produce devices for electrical, optical or mechanical applications. Etching of diamond is one of the important processing steps required to make devices. Achieving an isotropic etch with a high etch rate is a challenge. Semi-isotropic etch profiles with smooth surfaces were obtained by using anisotropic etching technique by placing diamond samples in a Faraday cage and etch rates of approximately 80 nm/min were achieved.

    Valleytronics, which is a novel concept to encode information based on the valley quantum number of electrons has been investigated for the first time in diamond. Valley-polarized electrons with the longest relaxation time ever recorded in any material (300 ns) were observed. This is a first step towards demonstrating valleytronic devices.

    Open access
  • Baharudin, Zikri Abadi

    Characterizations of ground flashes from tropic to northern region

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis portrays new information concerning the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes or ground flashes produced by thunderclouds. It emphasizes the importance of characterizing lightning studies as the relationship between lightning mechanisms, and of incorporating the influence of geographical location, latitude and storm type. Sweden, Malaysia and USA were chosen as the main locations for field experiments in 2009 to 2011 to gather a significant number of negative and positive CG flashes. This work provided data on a total of 1792 CG lightning flashes (1685 negative and 107 positive ones) from a total of 53 thunderstorms by monitoring both the slow and the fast electric field and the narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals simultaneously. This thesis is comprised of: (i) the relationship of the Low Positive Charge Region (LPCR) and Preliminary Breakdown Pulse (PBP) trains to the occurrence of negative CG, (ii) slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes in positive and negative ground flashes, and (iii) the occurrence of positive and negative ground flashes. It was revealed that the PBP train appeared have a higher strength in the in Sweden. The strength of the PBP train was caused by the LPCR; in contrast,  weak PBP trains were characteristic in tropical countries constituting insignificant LPCR and needing little energy to break the “blocking” agent to allow the flash to propagate downward to the ground. The second contribution concerns the characteristics of the PBP train mentioned; this includes novel information for Malaysia. Further, it is stated that there are some different characteristics in the PBP trains in Johor, Malaysia and Florida, USA. The studies of slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes clarifies unclear features concerning the starting position of slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes in positive and negative ground flashes. It was found that the slow field changes did not occur before the initial process of the commencement of preliminary breakdown. Single-station electric field measurements incorporating narrowband radiation field measurement and high resolution transient recording (12 bits) with an accuracy of several nanoseconds, allows one to distinguish between the intracloud activities and the preceding processes of ground flashes. The results for the interstroke intervals, amplitude distribution of subsequent return-stroke (SRS) and the number of strokes per flash in the tropics, subtropics and northern regions were similar. Finally, a significant number of positive return-stroke (RS) electric fields provided statistically significant information on the characteristics of these strokes.

    Open access
  • Gravråkmo, Halvar

    Buoy Geometry, Size and Hydrodynamics for Power Take Off Device for Point Absorber Linear Wave Energy Converter

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Wave energy converters of point absorber type have been developed and constructed. Full scale experiments have been carried out at sea and electricity has been successfully delivered. Linear permanent magnet generators together with a subsea substation and buoys of various geometric shapes have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The design has in large extent an electronic approach, keeping the mechanical part of it as simple as possible, due to the long life span and reliability of electric components.

    Because of the nature of a linear generator, the internal translator with permanent magnets has a limited stroke length which will be reached when the buoy is exposed to large wave heights. Internal springs at the top and bottom of the generator prevent the translator from hitting the generator hull. Inertial forces due to the mass and velocity of the translator and the buoy and its heave added mass compresses the spring. The added mass is a rather large part of the total moving mass. Simulations of a converter with a vertical cylindrical buoy and with a toroidal buoy were conducted, as well as real sea experiments with converters with cylindrical buoys of two different sizes and a toroidal buoy. The overloads are likely to affect the design and service life of the generator, the buoy and the wire which interconnects them.

    Buoy shapes with as much excitation force as possible and as little heave added mass as possible were sought. A toroidal buoy caused less overloads on the generator at sea states with short wave periods and relatively large wave height, but for sea states with very long wave periods or extremely high waves, the magnitude of the overloads was mainly determined by the maximum displacement of the buoy.

    Snap loads on the interconnecting wire, as the slack wire tensed up after a very deep wave trough, were found to be greater but of the same order of magnitude as forces during the rest of the wave cycle.

    During a 4 day period at various wave conditions, two converters with cylindrical buoys proved efficiency between 11.1 % and 24.4 %. The larger buoy had 78 % larger water plane area than the other buoy which resulted in 11 % more power production. Short wave period was beneficial for the power production.

    Infinite frequency heave added mass was measured for a cylindrical buoy at real sea and found to be greater than the linearly calculated theoretical added mass.

    Open access
  • Krishna, Remya

    Grid Connected Three-Level Converters: Studies for Wave Energy Conversion

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis presents an electrical system analysis of a wave energy converter (WEC) for the objective of grid connection. To transfer the enormous amount of power from waves to the load centers, efficient power electronic systems are essential. This thesis includes the modeling of a buoy–translator dynamics and the modeling of a linear permanent magnet generator along with simulation and experimental validation. Diode bridge rectifiers are considered for rectification to avoid the complex linear generator control at the input side. To reduce the size and the cost of energy storage elements, DC voltage regulation is done using a DC/DC converter.

    To achieve smooth and high power, many WECs need to be connected to a common DC link. A neutral point clamped inverter is considered for the DC/AC conversion due to its advantages over conventional topologies. Various pulse width modulation schemes are tested for the inverter to choose the optimum PWM method. The harmonics in the inverter output voltage is derived numerically and compared with simulation and experiment to understand the effect of dead-time in the inverter operation.

    Depending on the load current drawn from the inverter, the voltages in the two input capacitors of a three-level neutral point clamped inverter deviates from equilibrium unless the neutral point is grounded. To avoid this voltage imbalance as well as to regulate the DC link voltage a dual output boost converter with pulse delay control is proposed. The modeling, simulation and experiments show an improvement in the compensation voltage using pulse delay control compared to the previously proposed methods in the literature. The synchronous current control and the grid connection of the three-level converter have been accomplished in the laboratory. 

    Finally, the three-level power converter system has been tested with a linear permanent magnet generator at Lysekil to analyze the controller requirements.

    Open access
  • Abrahamsson, Johan

    Kinetic Energy Storage and Magnetic Bearings: for Vehicular Applications

    2014.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    One of the main challenges in order to make electric cars competitive with gas-powered cars is in the improvement of the electric power system. Although many of the energy sources currently used in electric vehicles have sufficientlyhigh specific energy, their applicability is limited due to low specific power. It would therefore be advantageous to create a driveline with the main energy storage separated from a smaller energy buffer, designed to have high power capabilities and to withstand frequent and deep discharge cycles. It has been found that rotating kinetic energy storage in flywheels is very well suited for this type of application.

    A composite shell, comprising an inner part made of glassfiber and an outer part made of carbonfiber, was analyzed analytically and numerically, designed, and constructed. The shell was fitted onto a metallic rotor using shrinkfitting. The cost of the shell, and the complexity of assembly, was reduced by winding the glass- and carbonfiber consecutively on a mandrel, and curing the complete assembly simultaneously. Thereby, the shell obtained an internal segmentation, without the need for fitting several concentric parts onto each other. The radial stress inside the composite shell was kept compressive thanks to a novel approach of using the permanent magnets of the integrated electric machine to provide radial mechanical load during rotation.

    Two thrust bearing units (one upper and one lower) comprising one segmented unit with the permanent magnets in a cylindrical Halbach configuration and one non-segmented unit in a up/down configuration were optimized, constructed and tested. Each thrust bearing unit generated 1040 N of repelling force, and a positive axial stiffness of 169 N/mm at the nominal airgap of 5 mm. 

    Two radial active magnetic bearings (one upper and one lower) were optimized, constructed and tested. By parameterizing the shape of the actuators, a numerical optimization of force over resistive loss from the bias currentcould be performed. The optimized shape of the electromagnets was produced by watercutting sheets of laminated steel. A maximum current stiffness of120 N/A at a bias current of 1.5 A was achieved.

    Open access

Publications

2013

  • Ekergård, Boel

    Full Scale Applications of Permanent Magnet Electromagnetic Energy Converters: From Nd2Fe14B to Ferrite

    2013.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis presents research regarding a full scale linear ferrite permanent magnet generator, installed in a wave energy conversion system. The ferrite based magnetic circuit, supplementing the previous utilized Nd2Fe14B-magnet design, is designed with an electromagnetic numerical simulation tool, where the model is derived from Maxwell’s equations. The full scale design is, known to the author, the first developed linear ferrite based machine. The material change in the magnetic circuit required different mechanical solutions of the generator. The fundamental, primary theory and reasoning behind the new mechanical design is here presented, where sustainability, economy and production have been in focus and affected the final design. Two versions of the generator have been assembled and deployed at the projects experimental site on the Swedish west coast, and three more are under construction, planned to be installed during the autumn of 2013.  

    Further, the thesis presents an electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena. Full scale experimental results present a successfully achieved electric resonance between the linear wave energy generator and external circuit.

    Finally, research regarding a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle is presented. Detailed analytical and numerical calculations are utilized to investigate the losses in the machine over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate the possibility of an increased efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system and argue for elimination of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased.   

    The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the Lysekil Wave Power Project, developed by a research group at Uppsala University, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electric vehicles with ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System.      

    Open access
  • Lalander, Emilia

    Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment: Measurements and Models

    2013.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The conversion of kinetic energy in water currents into electricity has gained great attention the past years. The conversion systems are stand-alone units that typically consist of a turbine, driven by the water stream, with a generator connected to it. At the Division of Electricity at Uppsala University, research on a hydrokinetic energy conversion system is ongoing. In March 2013, a full-scale prototype was deployed in the river Dalälven at Söderfors.

    This thesis is based on seven papers where the aim has been to assess the resource for hydrokinetic energy conversion. The existing hydrokinetic energy resource assessments in Scandinavia have been limited to the tidal energy found along the coast of Norway. The results from these assessments were unreliable, due to the lack of velocity data and the simple methodology used. One objective of this thesis was thus to measure the velocity in both tidal current and rivers, and evaluate models for predicting these values. Another objective was to study implications of the conversion of hydrokinetic energy, such as the degree of utilisation and the conversion efficiency, and effects on the surrounding flow and water level.

    River discharge data was shown to give a good approximation of the velocity. However, non-linear behaviour of the velocity upon changing discharge cannot be approximated with discharge data. A model using tidal level data to estimate the velocity in fjord entrances was evaluated, and the model was shown to adequately estimate the cross-sectional average velocity. However, the maximum velocity in the horizontal cross-sectional profile was significantly higher than the cross-sectional average, and the model, in its current form, was not recommended to be used for resource estimations.

    A high degree of utilisation, around 50%, was shown to be possible to achieve in both tidal and river currents, provided that the rated velocity is chosen properly. It was concluded that the rated velocity should be higher than the mean value, but lower than the value giving optimal conversion efficiency. Converting the kinetic energy of the flow to electricity in a river was shown to alter the water level upstream of the turbine. However, the increase in water level, caused by a hydrokinetic energy converter, was shown to be negligible compared to background friction.

    Open access
  • Bülow, Fredrik

    A Generator Perspective on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    2013.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The wind energy conversion system considered in this thesis is based on a vertical axis wind turbine with a cable wound direct drive PM generator. Diode rectifiers are used to connect several such units to a single DC-bus and a single inverter controls the power flow from the DC-bus to a utility grid. This work considers the described system from a generator perspective i.e. the turbine is primarily seen as a torque and the inverter is seen as a controlled load.

    A 12 kW VAWT prototype with a single turbine has been constructed within the project. The power coefficient of this turbine has been measured when the turbine is operated at various tip speed ratios. This measurement determines both how much energy the turbine can convert in a given wind and at what speed the turbine should be operated in order to maximise the energy capture. The turbine torque variation during the revolution of the turbine has also been studied.

    A PM generator prototype has been constructed in order to study power loss in the stator core at low electrical frequencies. Heat exchange between the stator and the air-gap between the stator and the rotor has been studied. Heat exchange between the stator and the air-gap is increased by turbulence caused by the rotor. The generator was also used in a demonstration of a DC-grid where two diode rectified PM generators supplied power to a single DC load.  An initial study of an inverter suitable for grid connection of the 12 kW PM generator has been performed.

    Several turbine control strategies are evaluated in simulations. The control strategies only require the parameter "turbine speed" to determine the optimal system load.

    Open access
  • Wallin, Mattias

    Measurement and modelling of unbalanced magnetic pull in hydropower generators

    2013.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Hydropower research is often perceived to be an old and exhausted field of study but with ageing equipment and the need for more intermittent operation caused by an increased share of other renewable energy sources new challenges lie ahead.

    The main focus of this dissertation are the electromagnetic forces resulting from nonuniform air gap flux, whether it be caused by rotor eccentricity or a faulty field winding. Results are predominantly obtained from measurements on an experimental generator and numerical simulations.

    With the computational capacity available today it is possible to numerically analyse physical phenomena that previously could only be studied with analytical tools. Numerical models can also be expanded to encompass more than one aspect of generator operation in coupled field-circuit models without model complexity surpassing computer capability.

    Three studies of unbalanced magnetic pull, UMP, in synchronous salient pole generators constitute the main part of this thesis.

    The first is a study of how parallel stator circuits affect the unbalanced magnetic pull caused by rotor eccentricity. Depending on the relationship between the geometry of the separate circuits and the direction of the eccentricity it was found that parallel circuits could reduce the UMP substantially.

    Secondly, an investigation of the effect of damper winding configuration on UMP was performed. The results showed that damper winding resistivity and the distance between the damper bars in a pole determine the effectiveness of the damper winding in reducing the UMP. Simulations of a production machine indicate that the reduction can be substantial from damper windings with low resistivity.

    The third study analyses the consequences of field winding interturn short circuits. Apart from a resulting rotating unbalanced magnetic pull it is found that the unaffected poles with the same polarity as the affected pole experience an increase in flux density.

    In a fourth article a new stand still frequency response, SSFR, test method including measurements of damper winding voltage and current is presented. It is found that the identified models are capable of predicting the stator to damper transfer function both with and without the damper winding measurements included.

    Open access
  • Grabbe, Mårten

    Hydro-Kinetic Energy Conversion: Resource and Technology

    2013.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The kinetic energy present in tidal currents and other water courses has long been appreciated as a vast resource of renewable energy. The work presented in this doctoral thesis is devoted to both the characteristics of the hydro-kinetic resource and the technology for energy conversion.

    An assessment of the tidal energy resource in Norwegian waters has been carried out based on available data in pilot books. More than 100 sites have been identified as interesting with a total estimated theoretical resource—i.e. the kinetic energy in the undisturbed flow—in the range of 17 TWh. A second study was performed to analyse the velocity distributions presented by tidal currents, regulated rivers and unregulated rivers. The focus is on the possible degree of utilization (or capacity factor), the fraction of converted energy and the ratio of maximum to rated velocity, all of which are believed to be important characteristics of the resource affecting the economic viability of a hydro-kinetic energy converter.

    The concept for hydro-kinetic energy conversion studied in this thesis comprises a vertical axis turbine coupled to a directly driven permanent magnet generator. One such cable wound laboratory generator has been constructed and an experimental setup for deployment in the river Dalälven has been finalized as part of this thesis work. It has been shown, through simulations and experiments, that the generator design at hand can meet the system requirements in the expected range of operation. Experience from winding the prototype generators suggests that improvements of the stator slot geometry can be implemented and, according to simulations, decrease the stator weight by 11% and decrease the load angle by 17%. The decrease in load angle opens the possibility to reduce the amount of permanent magnetic material in the design.

    Open access

Publications

2012

  • Goude, Anders

    Fluid Mechanics of Vertical Axis Turbines: Simulations and Model Development

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Two computationally fast fluid mechanical models for vertical axis turbines are the streamtube and the vortex model. The streamtube model is the fastest, allowing three-dimensional modeling of the turbine, but lacks a proper time-dependent description of the flow through the turbine. The vortex model used is two-dimensional, but gives a more complete time-dependent description of the flow. Effects of a velocity profile and the inclusion of struts have been investigated with the streamtube model. Simulations with an inhomogeneous velocity profile predict that the power coefficient of a vertical axis turbine is relatively insensitive to the velocity profile. For the struts, structural mechanic loads have been computed and the calculations show that if turbines are designed for high flow velocities, additional struts are required, reducing the efficiency for lower flow velocities.Turbines in channels and turbine arrays have been studied with the vortex model. The channel study shows that smaller channels give higher power coefficients and convergence is obtained in fewer time steps. Simulations on a turbine array were performed on five turbines in a row and in a zigzag configuration, where better performance is predicted for the row configuration. The row configuration was extended to ten turbines and it has been shown that the turbine spacing needs to be increased if the misalignment in flow direction is large.A control system for the turbine with only the rotational velocity as input has been studied using the vortex model coupled with an electrical model. According to simulations, this system can obtain power coefficients close to the theoretical peak values. This control system study has been extended to a turbine farm. Individual control of each turbine has been compared to a less costly control system where all turbines are connected to a mutual DC bus through passive rectifiers. The individual control performs best for aerodynamically independent turbines, but for aerodynamically coupled turbines, the results show that a mutual DC bus can be a viable option.Finally, an implementation of the fast multipole method has been made on a graphics processing unit (GPU) and the performance gain from this platform is demonstrated.

    Open access
  • Hagnestål, Anders

    Coil Design and Related Studies for the Fusion-Fission Reactor Concept SFLM Hybrid

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    A fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor is a combination of a fusion device and a subcritical fission reactor, where the fusion device acts as a neutron source and the power is mainly produced in the fission core. Hybrid reactors may be suitable for transmutation of transuranic isotopes in the spent nuclear fuel, due to the safety margin on criticality imposed by the subcritical fission core. The SFLM Hybrid project is a theoretical project that aims to point out the possibilities with steady-state mirror-based hybrid reactors. The quadrupolar magnetic mirror vacuum field is based on the Straight Field Line Mirror field and the central cell is 25 m long. A fission mantle surrounds the mirror cell. The fission to fusion power ratio is about 150 with keff = 0.97, implying that almost all the produced energy comes from fission. Beyond each mirror end magnetic expanders are located, which increase the plasma receiving “divertor” area and provide tolerable heat load on wall materials. The plasma is heated with ion cyclotron radio frequency heating and the fission mantle is cooled using a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic. The device is self-sufficient in tritium, and does not seem to suffer from severe material problems. A remaining issue may be the plasma electron temperature, which need to reach about 500 eV for efficient power production.  In this doctoral thesis, theoretical work has been done with the magnetic coil system of such a device and also with the overall concept. A new coil type, the fishbone coil, suitable for single cell quadrupolar mirrors, has been invented. Two vacuum field coil sets with satisfying properties have been found, where the most recent coil set consists of fishbone coils. Finite ß effects on the magnetic field have been investigated, showing that the flux tube ellipticity increases with ß. The ellipticity of the vacuum field increases slightly with radius, but with finite ß it decreases with radius. The maximum flux surface radial extensions decrease with ß, which is an unexpected and beneficial result. A radial invariant has also been identified, and particle simulations have been made to emphasize that quadrupolar mirrors must be symmetric or confinement may be lost.

    Open access
  • Kjellin, Jon

    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Electrical System and Experimental Results

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The wind power research at the division of Electricity at Uppsala University is aimed towards increased understanding of vertical axis wind turbines. The considered type of wind turbine is an H-rotor with a directly driven synchronous generator operating at variable speed. The experimental work presented in this thesis comprises investigation of three vertical axis wind turbines of different design and size. The electrical, control and measurement systems for the first 12 kW wind turbine have been designed and implemented. The second was a 10 kW wind turbine adapted to a telecom application. Both the 12 kW and the 10 kW were operated against dump loads. The third turbine was a 200 kW grid-connected wind turbine, where control and measurement systems have been implemented.

    Experimental results have shown that an all-electric control, substituting mechanical systems such as blade-pitch, is possible for this type of turbine. By controlling the rectified generator voltage, the rotational speed of the turbine is also controlled. An electrical start-up system has been built and verified. The power coefficient has been measured and the stall behaviour of this type of turbine has been examined. An optimum tip speed ratio control has been implemented and tested, with promising results. Use of the turbine to estimate the wind speed has been demonstrated. This has been used to get a faster regulation of the turbine compared to if an anemometer had been used.  

    Open access
  • Bladh, Johan

    Hydropower generator and power system interaction

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    After decades of routine operation, the hydropower industry faces new challenges. Large-scale integration of other renewable sources of generation in the power system accentuates the role of hydropower as a regulating resource. At the same time, an extensive reinvestment programme has commenced where many old components and apparatus are being refurbished or replaced. Introduction of new technical solutions in existing power plants requires good systems knowledge and careful consideration. Important tools for research, development and analysis are suitable mathematical models, numerical simulation methods and laboratory equipment. This doctoral thesis is devoted to studies of the electromechanical interaction between hydropower units and the power system. The work encompasses development of mathematical models, empirical methods for system identification, as well as numerical and experimental studies of hydropower generator and power system interaction. Two generator modelling approaches are explored: one based on electromagnetic field theory and the finite element method, and one based on equivalent electric circuits. The finite element model is adapted for single-machine infinite-bus simulations by the addition of a network equivalent, a mechanical equation and a voltage regulator. Transient simulations using both finite element and equivalent circuit models indicate that the finite element model typically overestimates the synchronising and damping properties of the machine. Identification of model parameters is performed both numerically and experimentally. A complete set of equivalent circuit parameters is identified through finite element simulation of standard empirical test methods. Another machine model is identified experimentally through frequency response analysis. An extension to the well-known standstill frequency response (SSFR) test is explored, which involves measurement and analysis of damper winding quantities. The test is found to produce models that are suitable for transient power system analysis. Both experimental and numerical studies show that low resistance of the damper winding interpole connections are vital to achieve high attenuation of rotor angle oscillations. Hydropower generator and power system interaction is also studied experimentally during a full-scale startup test of the Nordic power system, where multiple synchronised data acquisition devices are used for measurement of both electrical and mechanical quantities. Observation of a subsynchronous power oscillation leads to an investigation of the torsional stability of hydropower units. In accordance with previous studies, hydropower units are found to be mechanically resilient to subsynchronous power oscillations. However, like any other generating unit, they are dependent on sufficient electrical and mechanical damping. Two experimentally obtained hydraulic damping coefficients for a large Francis turbine runner are presented in the thesis.

    Open access
  • Yuen, Katarina

    System Perspectives on Hydro-Kinetic Energy Conversion

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Free-flowing water currents such as tides and unregulated water courses could contribute to world electricity production given the emergence of robust technical solutions for extracting the energy. At Uppsala University, a concept for converting the energy in water currents to electricity using a vertical axis turbine with fixed blade-pitch and a direct-drive permanent magnet generator is studied.

    Technological equipment for extracting energy from water currents can be studied at desktop to some extent, but physical realizations, first in a laboratory setting, and later in a natural aquatic setting, are necessary. For this reason, a laboratory generator has been constructed and evaluated, and an experimental setup comprising turbine, generator and control system has been constructed. The turbine and generator are to be deployed in the Dalälven River in Söderfors, and operated from an on-land control station. The author has worked with constructing and evaluating the low-speed laboratory generator, participated in the design and construction of the Söderfors generator, and designed and constructed the control system for Söderfors.

    The generator design incorporates a low rotational speed, permanent magnets, and many poles, in order to adapt the generator to the nature of water currents. Simulations and experimental data for the laboratory prototype have been compared and show that the simulation tool used is adequate for design studies of this type of generator. The generator has also been shown to be able to operate with the intended turbine design and range of water velocities. The control system to be used in Söderfors has been tested in a laboratory environment. Simulations of the control system show that it should be able to operate the turbine and generator at the desired rotational speeds in water velocities up to about 1.8 m/s. Simulations of the system have also shown that maximizing system power output may not correspond with maximizing turbine power.

    Open access
  • Svensson, Olle

    Experimental results from the Lysekil Wave Power Research Site

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis presents how experimental results, from wave power research performed offshore at the Lysekil research site, were obtained. The data were used to verify theoretical models as well as evaluate the feasibility of wave power as a future sustainable energy source.

    The first experiments carried out at the research site was the measurement of the force in a line where one end was connected to a buoy with a diameter of 3 m and the other end to a set of springs with limited stroke length. The system is exposed to high peak forces compared to average forces. The maximum measured force in the line, when the buoy motion is limited by a stiff stopper rope is ten times the average force in that particular sea state.

    The experiment performed on the first wave energy converter tested at the Lysekil Research Site is described. The infrastructure of the site is presented where the central connection point is the measuring station. The key finding is that it is possible to transform the motions of ocean waves into electrical energy and distribute it to land.

    Many wave energy converters must be interconnected if large amounts of energy are to be harvested from the waves. The first submerged substation intended for aggregation of energy from wave power converters is described, with focus on the measurement and control system placed inside the substation. During this experiment period the generators were equipped with many different sensors; these measurements are explained in the thesis.

    The system that aggregates power from the studied wave energy converter is regularly exposed to peak power of up to 20 times the maximum average output from the converter.

    Vertical and horizontal movement of the buoy has been measured in different ways. The result is that the vertical displacement of the buoy can be measured with a simple accelerometer circuit but it is much more complicated to measure the horizontal displacement. A special method for measuring the horizontal displacement has been implemented by measuring the strain in the enclosure and the force in the line.

    Open access
  • Strömstedt, Erland

    Submerged Transmission in Wave Energy Converters: Full Scale In-Situ Experimental Measurements

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Different wave power technologies are in development around the world in different stages of prototype testing. So far only a few devices have been deployed offshore at full scale for extended periods of time. Little data is published about how these different devices perform.

    This thesis presents results from experiments with the full-scale offshore wave energy converters at the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast. The theories, experiments, measurements, performance evaluations and developments of the submerged transmission in the direct driven permanent magnet linear generator are in focus. The reciprocating submerged transmission fulfills the purpose of transmitting the absorbed mechanical wave energy through the capsule wall into the generator, while preventing the seawater from entering the capsule and reducing the life time of the converter.

    A measuring system with seven laser triangulation sensors has been developed to measure small relative displacements between piston rod and seal housing in the submerged transmission with excellent accuracy for the purpose of evaluating both functional behavior and successive wear in-situ. A method for calculating relative tilt angles, azimuth angles, differential tilt angles, and successive wear in the submerged transmission has been developed. Additional sensors systems have been installed in the converter enabling correlation and a thorough investigation into the operating conditions of the transmission and the converter. The thesis presents unique results from the measurements. A data acquisition system transmits the signals from the converter on the seabed to an onshore measuring station. Results are presented in time-, frequency- and the time-frequency domain.

    The results have given important information for further development of the submerged transmission, which is important to the survivability of the system. The thesis describes the status of research, and is a step that may influence future designs of wave energy devices for reaching survivability and a cost-effective renewable energy system.

    Open access
  • Majdi, Saman

    Experimental Studies of Charge Transport in Single Crystal Diamond Devices

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Diamond is a promising material for high-power, high-frequency and high- temperature electronics applications, where its outstanding physical properties can be fully exploited. It exhibits an extremely high bandgap, very high carrier mobilities, high breakdown field strength, and the highest thermal conductivity of any wide bandgap material. It is therefore an outstanding candidate for the fastest switching, the highest power density, and the most efficient electronic devices obtainable, with applications in the RF power, automotive and aerospace industries. Lightweight diamond devices, capable of high temperature operation in harsh environments, could also be used in radiation detectors and particle physics applications where no other semiconductor devices would survive.

    The high defect and impurity concentration in natural diamond or high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) diamond substrates has made it difficult to obtain reliable results when studying the electronic properties of diamond. However, progress in the growth of high purity Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposited (SC-CVD) diamond has opened the perspective of applications under such extreme conditions based on this type of synthetic diamond.

    Despite the improvements, there are still many open questions. This work will focus on the electrical characterization of SC-CVD diamond by different measurement techniques such as internal photo-emission, I-V, C-V, Hall measurements and in particular, Time-of-Flight (ToF) carrier drift velocity measurements. With these mentioned techniques, some important properties of diamond such as drift mobilities, lateral carrier transit velocities, compensation ratio and Schottky barrier heights have been investigated. Low compensation ratios (ND/NA) < 10-4 have been achieved in boron-doped diamond and a drift mobility of about 860 cm2/Vs for the hole transit near the surface in a lateral ToF configuration could be measured. The carrier drift velocity was studied for electrons and holes at the temperature interval of 80-460 K. The study is performed in the low-injection regime and includes low-field drift mobilities. The hole mobility was further investigated at low temperatures (10-80 K) and as expected a very high mobility was observed.

    In the case of electrons, a negative differential mobility was seen in the temperature interval of 100-150K. An explanation for this phenomenon is given by the intervally scattering and the relation between hot and cold conduction band valleys. This was observed in direct bandgap semiconductors with non-equivalent valleys such as GaAs but has not been seen in diamond before.

    Furthermore, first steps have been taken to utilize diamond for infrared (IR) radiation detection. To understand the fundamentals of the thermal response of diamond, Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) measurements were performed on diamond Schottky diodes which are a candidate for high temperature sensors. As a result, very high TCR values in combination with a low noise constant (K1/f) was observed.

    Open access
  • Savin, Andrej

    Experimental Measurement of Lateral Force in a Submerged Single Heaving Buoy Wave Energy Converter

    2012.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The search for new solutions for the generation of energy is becoming more and more important for our future. Big arguments and disagreements on e.g. the questions of gas transport or the dependence on energy supplied by other countries raise demands on the development of new forms of alternative energy resources. Wave power is one of the main sources of renewable energy due to the high power density stored in ocean waves.

    Nevertheless, the dynamic forces of waves are so large that serious questions popped up on how to design a system which could work even in an unfavourable wave climate or could at least retain working capabilities after big storms without significant damages.

    This thesis studies the reliability of the mechanical parts of a linear direct driven permanent magnet generator. The results of offshore experiment where strain gauge sensors instrumented on the capsule and the inner framework structure are presented. Stress estimation analyses using strain gauges are carried out. A method for measuring forces and moments in the mechanical structure of the WEC is developed.

    Evaluation of the lateral force acting on the outer structure is a key factor for the design and construction of the WEC. A method for the measurement of the lateral force acting on the capsule has been developed.

    A study of the inclination angle between the Wave Energy Converter and the floating buoy has been carried out.

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the development of wave energy conversion system, and especially to the estimation of structural loads which are important for the survivability of the system under hard sea states.

    This work is a step that may influence future design of wave energy devices in terms of material aspect, survivability in a hard wave climate and cost-effective renewable energies.

    Open access

Publications

2011

  • Engström, Jens

    Hydrodynamic Modelling for a Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converter

    2011.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Surface gravity waves in the world’s oceans contain a renewable source of free power on the order of terawatts that has to this date not been commercially utilized. The division of Electricity at Uppsala University is developing a technology to harvest this energy. The technology is a point absorber type wave energy converter based on a direct-driven linear generator placed on the sea bed connected via a line to a buoy on the surface.

    The work in this thesis is focused mainly on the energy transport of ocean waves and on increasing the transfer of energy from the waves to the generator and load. Potential linear wave theory is used to describe the ocean waves and to derive the hydrodynamic forces that are exerted on the buoy. Expressions for the energy transport in polychromatic waves travelling over waters of finite depth are derived and extracted from measured time series of wave elevation collected at the Lysekil test site. The results are compared to existing solutions that uses the simpler deep water approximation. A Two-Body system wave energy converter model tuned to resonance in Swedish west coast sea states is developed based on the Lysekil project concept. The first indicative results are derived by using a linear resistive load. The concept is further extended by a coupled hydrodynamic and electromagnetic model with two more realistic non-linear load conditions.

    Results show that the use of the deep water approximation gives a too low energy transport in the time averaged as well as in the total instantaneous energy transport. Around the resonance frequency, a Two-Body System gives a power capture ratio of up to 80 percent. For more energetic sea states the power capture ratio decreases rapidly, indicating a smoother power output. The currents in the generator when using the Two-Body system is shown to be more evenly distributed compared to the conventional system, indicating a better utilization of the electrical equipment. Although the resonant nature of the system makes it sensitive to the shape of the wave spectrum, results indicate a threefold increase in annual power production compared to the conventional system.

    Open access
  • Lindroth [formerly Tyrberg], Simon

    Buoy and Generator Interaction with Ocean Waves: Studies of a Wave Energy Conversion System

    2011.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    On March 13th, 2006, the Division of Electricity at Uppsala University deployed its first wave energy converter, L1, in the ocean southwest of Lysekil. L1 consisted of a buoy at the surface, connected through a line to a linear generator on the seabed. Since the deployment, continuous investigations of how L1 works in the waves have been conducted, and several additional wave energy converters have been deployed.

    This thesis is based on ten publications, which focus on different aspects of the interaction between wave, buoy, and generator. In order to evaluate different measurement systems, the motion of the buoy was measured optically and using accelerometers, and compared to measurements of the motion of the movable part of the generator - the translator. These measurements were found to correlate well. Simulations of buoy and translator motion were found to match the measured values.

    The variation of performance of L1 with changing water levels, wave heights, and spectral shapes was also investigated. Performance is here defined as the ratio of absorbed power to incoming power. It was found that the performance decreases for large wave heights. This is in accordance with the theoretical predictions, since the area for which the stator and the translator overlap decreases for large translator motions. Shifting water levels were predicted to have the same effect, but this could not be seen as clearly.

    The width of the wave energy spectrum has been proposed by some as a factor that also affects the performance of a wave energy converter, for a set wave height and period. Therefore the relation between performance and several different parameters for spectral width was investigated. It was found that some of the parameters were in fact correlated to performance, but that the correlation was not very strong.

    As a background on ocean measurements in wave energy, a thorough literature review was conducted. It turns out that the Lysekil project is one of quite few projects that have published descriptions of on-site wave energy measurements.

    Open access
  • de Santiago Ochoa, Juan

    FEM Analysis Applied to Electric Machines for Electric Vehicles

    2011.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Electric vehicle technology is an interdisciplinary field in continuous development. It appears to be a margin for improvements. The Division for Electricity at Uppsala University is doing significant research in the field. The present thesis investigates electric machines for vehicular applications, both in the driveline and in the traction motor.

    Section 1 presents a driveline with two galvanically isolated voltage levels. A low power side is operated at the optimum voltage of the batteries, while a high power side is operated at a higher voltage leading to higher efficiencies in the traction motor. Both sides are coupled through a flywheel that stabilizes the power transients inherent to a drive cycle.

    A review of electric machine topologies for electric vehicles is presented in Section 2. The permanent magnet excited machine is the most suitable technology for an electric driveline.

    Section 3 is devoted to numerical models applied to electric machines. The equivalent circuit of a motor/generator with two sets of windings is first presented. This machine couples both sides of the driveline and drives the rotor of the flywheel. The electric parameters are calculated with custom FEM models. A discussion on slotless machines concludes with a simple model to analyze the magnetic field from one static 3D simulation. The tooth ripple losses in solid salient poles are also analyzed with a novel FEM approach. A complete description of the losses in electric machines gives a proper background for further discussion on efficiency.

    Section 4 presents the experimental work constructed to validate the theoretical models. The experiments include an axial flux, single wounded prototype, an axial flux, double wound prototype and a planed radial flux coreless prototype.

    Section 5 focuses on traction motors for electric vehicles. A simulated prototype illustrates a design and calculation process. The loss theory and the numerical methods presented in Section 3 are applied.

    Open access
  • Gonçalves de Oliveira, Janaína

    Power Control Systems in a Flywheel based All-Electric Driveline

    2011.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Flywheel systems are attractive in hybrid and electric vehicles due to their ability to handle power during acceleration and braking. The combination of a flywheel device with a battery source has several advantages such as high peak power capacity, high energy density and reduction in the number of charge/discharge cycles of the battery.

    A flywheel based all-electric driveline is investigated in this thesis. The novelty of the system consists in the use of a double wound flywheel machine, which divides the system in two different power levels. Due to this configuration, the system becomes efficient and can handle the power developed during fast dynamical processes.

    The complete driveline consists of three main components: the battery, the flywheel machine and the wheel motor. The High-Power (HP) side of the driveline connects the flywheel machine to the wheel motor, whereas the Low-Power (LP) side connects the flywheel machine to the battery. The connections of different components of the system are made electrically through power converter devices.

    The present thesis focuses on the electrical converters and control strategies used in the flywheel based all-electric driveline. The control of power converters is responsible for the logic and functionality of the driveline, being a challenging step within this project.

    Different power converter topologies have been investigated: a DC/DC plus a DC/AC converter on the LP side, and an AC/DC/AC converter on the HP side. The design and assembly of the power electronics and their control scheme have been successfully implemented. Different control strategies have been suggested and a complete scaled driveline has been assembled and tested based on previous simulation results.

    Results have confirmed the functionality of the driveline, where smoothed output power has been obtained from the battery, whereas the flywheel handles power transients on the traction side. An average efficiency of about 87% (battery to wheels) has been obtained. The power converter systems have been shown to be efficient and robust, with control strategies able to handle the peak energy flow in the system. A regenerative braking strategy has been simulated and a wheel-to-wheel efficiency of about 80% has been estimated.

    Open access
  • Ahmad, Noor Azlinda

    Broadband and HF Radiation from Cloud Flashes and Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    2011.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Remote measurement of electric field generated by lightning has played a major role in understanding the lightning phenomenon. Even though other measurements such as photographic and channel base current have contributed to this research field, due to practical reasons remote measurements of electric field is considered as the most useful tool in lightning research.

    This thesis discusses the remotely measured radiation field component of electric field generated by cloud flashes (ICs) and narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs). The associated HF radiation of these events at 3 MHz and 30 MHz are also discussed. To understand the initiation process of these discharges, a comparative study of the initial pulse of cloud flashes against the initial pulse of cloud to ground flashes was conducted. The result suggests that both discharges might have been initiated by similar physical processes inside the thunderclouds. Comparing the features of initial pulse of cloud and ground flashes with that of pulses that appeared in the later stages of cloud flashes suggests that the initiation process involved in both flashes are not very much different from the initiation of cloud flashes at the later stage. The average spectral amplitudes of electric field of full duration cloud flashes (180 ms) showed -1 frequency dependence within the interval of 10 kHz to approximately 10 MHz. This is in contrast to the standard -2 decrement (or even steeper ) at high frequency region for other lightning processes such as return strokes. It was suggested that small pulses which repeatedly appeared at the later stage of cloud flashes might have contributed to enhance the spectral amplitude at higher frequencies.

    Electric fields generated by Narrow Bipolar Pulses (NBPs), which are considered as one of the strongest sources of HF radiation, were measured in the tropics of Malaysia and Sri Lanka.  Their features were also studied and show a good agreement with previously published observations of NBPs from other geographical regions. Thorough analyses and observations of these pulses found previously unreported sharp, fine peaks embedded in the rising and decaying edge of the electric field change of NBPs. Therefore it was suggested that these fine peaks are mostly responsible for the intense HF radiation at 30 MHz.

    Open access
  • Arevalo, Liliana

    Numerical Simulations of Long Spark and Lightning Attachment

    2011.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The research work presented here is concerned with numerical simulations of two different electrical phenomena: Long gap electrical discharges under switching impulses and the lightning attachment process associated with positive upward leaders. The development of positive upward leaders and the progression of discharges in long gaps are attributable to two intertwined physical phenomena, namely, the leader channel and the streamer zone. The physical description and the proposed calculations of the above-mentioned phenomena are based on experimental tests conducted in long spark gaps.

    The methodology presented here proposes a new geometrical approximation for the representation of the streamer and the calculation of the accumulated electrical charge. Furthermore, two different approaches to representing the leader channel are applied and compared. Statistical delays before the inception of the first corona, and random distributions to represent the tortuous nature of the path taken by the leader channel were included based on the behavior observed in experimental tests, with the intention of ensuring the discharge behaved in a realistic manner. A reasonable agreement was found between the physical model and the experimental test results.

    A model is proposed to simulate the negative discharges produced by switching impulses using the methodology developed to simulate positive leader discharges and the physics underlying the negative leader phenomena. The validation of the method demonstrated that phenomena such as the pilot leader and negative leader currents are successfully represented.

    In addition, based on previous work conducted on the physics of lightning and the lightning attachment process, a new methodology is developed and tested. In this new approach, the background electric field and the ionized region, considered in conjunction with the advance of the leader segment, are computed using a novel method. The proposed methodology was employed to test two engineering methods that are accepted in international standards, the mesh method and the electro-geometrical method. The results demonstrated that the engineering approximations are consistent with the physical approach.

    In addition to the electrical phenomena mentioned above, one should remember that, to simplify the calculation, there are certain real effects arising from the lightning attachment process that have not been considered. In fact, when a structure is subjected to a strong electric field, it is possible to generate multiple upward leaders from that structure. This effect has not been taken into account in the numerical models available previously, and therefore the process of generating multiple upward leaders incepted over a structure is incorporated here. The results have shown that a slight advantage from the background electric field is enough for one upward connecting leader to take over, thereby forcing the others to abort the attachment process.

    Open access
  • Ranlöf, Martin

    Electromagnetic Analysis of Hydroelectric Generators

    2011.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Hydropower maintains its position as the most important source of renewable electric energy in the world. The efficiency of large hydropower plants is unsurpassed, and after more than hundred years of development, the technology is mature and highly reliable. While new hydro resources are currently being developed in Asia and South America, most European countries go through a phase of intense refurbishment and upgrading of existing plants. Challenges faced by the hydropower industry include a knowledge transfer to new generations and the adaptation of unit designs to meet new operational requirements.

    As with all branches of engineering, the use of computerized design tools has revolutionized the art of hydropower plant design and the analysis of its performance. In the present work, modern tools like coupled field-circuit models and semi-analytic permeance models are used to address different aspects of electromagnetic analysis of generators in large hydropower plants.

    The results include the presentation of a mathematical model that uses concepts from rotating field theory to determine the air-gap flux density waveform in a hydroelectric generator. The model was succesfully used to evaluate armature voltage harmonics and damper bar currents at no-load and load conditions.

    A second study is concerned with the importance of losses due to rotational fields in core loss calculations. It is found that dynamic and rotational effects typically increase the total core loss estimates with about 28% in large hydroelectric generators.

    In a third study, linear models for the calculation of salient pole shoe form factors at an arbitrary level of magnetic loading are presented. The effect of the damper winding configuration on the damping capability of salient-pole generators is then evaluated in a separate study. The predicted impact of the coupling between damper cages on adjacent poles on the damping torque production is verified in a set of experiments.

    Open access
  • Boström, Cecilia

    Electrical Systems for Wave Energy Conversion

    2011.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Wave energy is a renewable energy source with a large potential to contribute to the world's electricity production. There exist several technologies on how to convert the energy in the ocean waves into electric energy. The wave energy converter (WEC) presented in this thesis is based on a linear synchronous generator. The generator is placed on the seabed and driven by a point absorbing buoy on the ocean surface. Instead of having one large unit, several smaller units are interconnected to increase the total installed power.

    To convert and interconnect the power from the generators, marine substations are used. The marine substations are placed on the seabed and convert the fluctuating AC from the generators into an AC suitable for grid connection.

    The work presented in the thesis focuses on the first steps in the electric energy conversion, converting the voltage out from the generators into DC, which have an impact on the WEC's ability to absorb and produce power. The purpose has been to investigate how the generator will operate when it is subjected to different load cases and to obtain guidelines on how future systems could be improved. Offshore experiments and simulations have been done on full scale generators connected to four different loads, i.e. one linear resistive load and three different non-linear loads representing different cases for grid connected WECs.

    The results show that the power can be controlled and optimized by choosing a suitable system for the WEC. It is not obvious which kind of system is the most preferable, since there are many different parameters that have an impact on the system performance, such as the size of the buoy, how the generator is designed, the number of WECs, the highest allowed complexity of the system, costs and so on. Therefore, the design of the electrical system should preferably be carried out in parallel with the design of the WEC in order to achieve an efficient system.

    Open access

Publications

2010

  • Deglaire, Paul

    Analytical Aerodynamic Simulation Tools for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    2010.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Wind power is a renewable energy source that is today the fastest growing solution to reduce CO2 emissions in the electric energy mix. Upwind horizontal axis wind turbine with three blades has been the preferred technical choice for more than two decades. This horizontal axis concept is today widely leading the market. The current PhD thesis will cover an alternative type of wind turbine with straight blades and rotating along the vertical axis. A brief overview of the main differences between the horizontal and vertical axis concept has been made. However the main focus of this thesis is the aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades.

    Making aerodynamically efficient turbines starts with efficient blades. Making efficient blades requires a good understanding of the physical phenomena and effective simulations tools to model them. The specific aerodynamics for straight bladed vertical axis turbine flow are reviewed together with the standard aerodynamic simulations tools that have been used in the past by blade and rotor designer. A reasonably fast (regarding computer power) and accurate (regarding comparison with experimental results) simulation method was still lacking in the field prior to the current work. This thesis aims at designing such a method.

    Analytical methods can be used to model complex flow if the geometry is simple. Therefore, a conformal mapping method is derived to transform any set of section into a set of standard circles. Then analytical procedures are generalized to simulate moving multibody sections in the complex vertical flows and forces experienced by the blades. Finally the fast semi analytical aerodynamic algorithm boosted by fast multipole methods to handle high number of vortices is coupled with a simple structural model of the rotor to investigate potential aeroelastic instabilities.

    Together with these advanced simulation tools, a standard double multiple streamtube model has been developed and used to design several straight bladed rotor ranging from 2 kW to 20 kW.

    Open access
  • Gabrysch, Markus

    Charge Transport in Single-crystalline CVD Diamond

    2010.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Diamond is a semiconductor with many superior material properties such as high breakdown field, high saturation velocity, high carrier mobilities and the highest thermal conductivity of all materials. These extreme properties, as compared to other (wide bandgap) semiconductors, make it desirable to develop single-crystalline epitaxial diamond films for electronic device and detector applications. Future diamond devices, such as power diodes, photoconductive switches and high-frequency field effect transistors, could in principle deliver outstanding performance due to diamond's excellent intrinsic properties. However, such electronic applications put severe demands on the crystalline quality of the material.

    Many fundamental electronic properties of diamond are still poorly understood, which severely holds back diamond-based electronic device and detector development. This problem is largely due to incomplete knowledge of the defects in the material and due to a lack of understanding of how these defects influence transport properties.

    Since diamond lacks a shallow dopant that is fully thermally activated at room temperature, the conventional silicon semiconductor technology cannot be transferred to diamond devices; instead, new concepts have to be developed. Some of the more promising device concepts contain thin delta-doped layers with a very high dopant concentration, which are fully activated in conjunction with undoped (intrinsic) layers where charges are transported. Thus, it is crucial to better understand transport in high-quality undoped layers with high carrier mobilities.

    The focus of this doctoral thesis is therefore the study of charge transport and related electronic properties of single-crystalline plasma-deposited (SC-CVD) diamond samples, in order to improve knowledge on charge creation and transport mechanisms. Fundamental characteristics such as drift mobilities, compensation ratios and average pair-creation energy were measured. Comparing them with theoretical predictions from simulations allows for verification of these models and improvement of the diamond deposition process.

    Open access
  • Rahm, Magnus

    Ocean Wave Energy: Underwater Substation System for Wave Energy Converters

    2010.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis deals with a system for operation of directly driven offshore wave energy converters. The work that has been carried out includes laboratory testing of a permanent magnet linear generator, wave energy converter mechanical design and offshore testing, and finally design, implementation, and offshore testing of an underwater collector substation. Long-term testing of a single point absorber, which was installed in March 2006, has been performed in real ocean waves in linear and in non-linear damping mode. The two different damping modes were realized by, first, a resistive load, and second, a rectifier with voltage smoothing capacitors and a resistive load in the DC-link. The loads are placed on land about 2 km east of the Lysekil wave energy research site, where the offshore experiments have been conducted. In the spring of 2009, another two wave energy converter prototypes were installed. Records of array operation were taken with two and three devices in the array. With two units, non-linear damping was used, and with three units, linear damping was employed. The point absorbers in the array are connected to the underwater substation, which is based on a 3 m3 pressure vessel standing on the seabed. In the substation, rectification of the frequency and amplitude modulated voltages from the linear generators is made. The DC voltage is smoothened by capacitors and inverted to 50 Hz electrical frequency, transformed and finally transmitted to the on-shore measuring station. Results show that the absorption is heavily dependent on the damping. It has also been shown that by increasing the damping, the standard deviation of electrical power can be reduced. The standard deviation of electrical power is reduced by array operation compared to single unit operation. Ongoing and future work include the construction and installation of a second underwater substation, which will connect the first substation and seven new WECs.

    Open access

Publications

2009

  • Langhamer, Olivia

    Wave energy conversion and the marine environment: Colonization patterns and habitat dynamics

    2009.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    A wave energy park has been established on the Swedish west coast outside Lysekil and pioneer work about its interactions with the marine environment has been conducted. So far, little is known about the effects of offshore energy installations on the marine environment, and this thesis assists in minimizing environmental risks as well as in enhancing potential positive effects on the marine environment. The Lysekil research site is situated about two kilometres offshore and has been under development since 2005. During this time 26 “environmental devices”, without generators, consisting of a steel buoy attached via a wire to a foundation on 25 m depth have been placed out for ecological studies on macrofauna in surrounding sediments and on colonization of the foundations and the buoys. Sediment samples to examine macrofauna in the seabed have been taken during five seasons. Biomass, abundance and diversity of infauna in the test site were generally low, but higher than in a nearby control site. The species composition was typical for the area and depth.

    In addition to sediment analysis, the effect of wave power concrete foundations on the marine environment has been investigated by scuba diving. The surface orientation and its effect on colonization by sessile organisms was examined on the first five foundations, placed out in 2005, and observations of habitat use by fish and crustaceans were made. The results show a succession of colonization over time (three years of investigation) with a higher cover by sessile organisms on vertical surfaces. Mobile fauna abundance on and around the foundations was generally low.

    Three months after the deployment of the 21 new foundations in 2007, assemblages of mobile organisms were examined visually. Also here, mobile species exhibit a low density, but still higher than on surrounding soft bottoms. The edible crab used artificial holes in the foundations frequently. The foundations were placed in two different clusters, north and south, and the degree to which early recruits covered the foundations and the succession of epibenthic communities were documented during two years. Sessile organisms colonized the northern foundations more rapidly, producing a higher diversity which suggests that the placement of wave energy devices affects colonization patterns.

    Biofouling on buoys was examined and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, dominated with a cover about 90%. Wave exposed buoys were particularly favoured by M. edulis which there had a higher biomass and larger shells compared to those on sheltered buoys. Biofouling on wave power buoys, independent whether these had a cylindrical or toroidal shape, was insufficient to markedly affect their energy production.

    Finally, the thesis incorporates a review describing wave power projects in general pointing out the need of future research on for instance no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields. The main conclusions are that large-scale renewable wave energy conversion will cause ecological impact primarily by adding new hard substrate to an area but not by harming organisms or decreasing biodiversity within wave power parks.

    Open access

Publications

2008

  • Malm, Ulf

    Modelling and Degradation Characteristics of Thin-film CIGS Solar Cells

    2008.

    Abstract

    Thin-film solar cells based around the absorber material CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) are studied with respect to their stability characteristics, and different ways of modelling device operation are investigated. Two ways of modelling spatial inhomogeneities are detailed, one fully numerical and one hybrid model. In the numerical model, thin-film solar cells with randomized parameter variations are simulated showing how the voltage decreases with increasing material inhomogeneities.

    With the hybrid model, an analytical model for the p-n junction action is used as a boundary condition to a numerical model of the steady state electrical conduction in the front contact layers. This also allows for input of inhomogeneous material parameters, but on a macroscopic scale. The simpler approach, compared to the numerical model, enables simulations of complete cells. Effects of material inhomogeneities, shunt defects and grid geometry are simulated.

    The stability of CIGS solar cells with varying absorber thickness, varying buffer layer material and CIGS from two different deposition systems are subjected to damp heat treatment. During this accelerated ageing test the cells are monitored using characterization methods including J-V, QE, C-V and J(V)T. The degradation studies show that the typical VOC decrease experienced by CIGS cells subjected to damp heat is most likely an effect in the bulk of the absorber material.

    When cells encapsulated with EVA are subjected to the same damp heat treatment, the effect on the voltage is considerably reduced. In this situation the EVA is saturated with moisture, representing a worst case scenario for a module in operation. Consequently, real-life modules will not suffer extensively from the VOC degradation effect, common in unprotected CIGS devices.

    Open access
  • Bengtsson, Olof

    Design and Characterization of RF-Power LDMOS Transistors

    2008.

    Abstract

    In mobile communication new applications like wireless internet and mobile video have increased the demand of data-rates. Therefore, new more wideband systems are being implemented. Power amplifiers in the base-stations that simultaneously handle these wideband signals for many terminals (handhelds) need to be highly linear with a considerable band-width.

    In the past decade LDMOS has been the dominating technology for use in these RF-power amplifiers. In this work LDMOS transistors possible to fabricate in a normal CMOS process have been optimized and analyzed for RF-power applications. Their non-linear behavior has been explored using load-pull measurements. The mechanisms of the non-linear input capacitance have been analyzed using 2D TCAD simulations. The investigation shows that the input capacitance is a large contributor to phase distortion in the transistor.

    Computational load-pull TCAD methods have been developed for analysis of RF-power devices in high-efficiency operation. Methods have been developed for class-F with harmonic loading and for bias-modulation. Load-pull measurements with drain-bias modulation in a novel measurement setup have also been conducted. The investigation shows that the combination of computational load-pull of physical transistor structures and direct measurement evaluation with modified load-pull is a viable alternative for future design of RF-power devices. Simulations and measurements on the designed LDMOS shows a 10 to 15 % increase in drain efficiency in mid-power range both in simulations and measurements. The computational load-pull method has also been used to investigate the power capability of LDMOS transistors on SOI. This study indicates that either a low-resistivity or high-resistivity substrate should be used in manufacturing of RF-power LDMOS transistors on SOI to achieve optimum efficiency. Based on a proper substrate selection these devices exhibit a 10 % higher drain-efficiency mainly due to lower dissipated power in the devices.

    Open access

Publications

2007

  • Thomas, Karin

    Low Speed Energy Conversion from Marine Currents

    2007.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The focus of this thesis is research on the performance of very low speed direct drive permanent magnet generators for energy conversion from marine and tidal currents. Various aspects involved in the design of these generators and their electromagnetic modelling using the finite element simulations are presented. For a detailed study, a 5 kW prototype generator has been designed and constructed based on finite element based simulations. Several experiments were conducted on the prototype generator. The experimental results were compared with the corresponding case simulations on the designed generator. The differences between the results predicted by the simulations and those predicted by the measurements were less than 10%. The part and overload performance of the generator has been investigated and it is found from both simulations and measurements that the generator is capable to efficiently operate at varying speeds. The tests on the experimental generator were made for speeds between 2 and 16 rpm and for load variations of 0.5 to 2 per unit. In this thesis it is shown that it is possible to design a very low speed direct drive generator for more or less any given marine current site and this is beneficial for projects aiming to develop a technical and economical viable marine current energy conversion system.

    Open access
  • Eriksson, Mikael

    Modelling and Experimental Verification of Direct Drive Wave Energy Conversion: Buoy-Generator Dynamics

    2007.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis is focused on development of models and modelling of a wave energy converter in operation. Through the thesis linear potential wave theory has been used to describe the wave-buoy interaction. The differences lie in the generator models, in the simplest model the generator is a mechanical damper characterized by a damping factor. In the most advanced generator model the magnetic fields is calculated the by a FE-method, which gives detailed description of the electric properties and the effect it has on the buoy dynamics. Moreover, an equivalent circuit description of the generator has been tested. It has the same accuracy as the field based model but with a strongly enhanced CPU time. All models are verified against full scale experiments. The models are intended to be used for design of the next generation wave energy converters. Further, the developed models have also been used to study what effect buoy geometry and generator damping have on the ability to energy absorption.

    In the spring 2006 a full scale wave energy converter was installed at the west coast of Sweden. It was in operation and collected data during three months. During that period the load resistance was varied in order to study the effect on the energy absorption. These collected data was then used in the verification of the developed models.

    In the year 2002 a wave energy project started at Uppsala University; this work is a part of that larger project which intendeds to develop a viable wave energy conversion concept.

    Open access

Publications

2006

  • Danielsson, Oskar

    Wave Energy Conversion: Linear Synchronous Permanent Magnet Generator

    2006.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis studies the electric aspects of a linear synchronous permanent magnet generator. The generator is designed for use in a wave energy converter, which determines the fundamental requirements of the generator. The electromagnetic properties of the generator are investigated with a finite element based simulation tool. These simulations formed the base of the design and construction of a laboratory prototype. Several experiments where conducted on the prototype generator. The results verify at large the simulation tool. However, a difference between the measured and simulated air gap flux was discovered. This was attributed to the longitudinal ends of the generator, which are ignored in the simulation tool. Experiences from the construction, and further finite element studies, led to a significant change in the support structure of the first offshore prototype generator. A complete wave energy converter was constructed and launched, the 13th of March, on the west coast of Sweden. A study of the load resistance impact on the power absorption has been carried out. An optimal load interval, with regard to power absorption, has been identified. Furthermore, the generator has proofed to withstand short term overload several times larger than the nominal load. Finally, the longitudinal ends’ influence on the flux distribution was investigated with an analytical model, as well as finite element simulations. A possible problem with large induction of eddy currents in the actuator back steel was identified.

    This work is a part of a larger project, which aims do develop a viable wave energy conversion system.

    Open access
  • Savenko, Natalia

    MHD Stability and Confinement of Plasmas in a Single Mirror Cell

    2006.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Thermonuclear fusion is a promising energy source for the future. If an economically efficient thermonuclear reactor would be built it has to be a cheap, safe, and highly productive electric power plant, or, a heating plant.

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the single cell mirror trap with a marginally stable minimum B vacuum magnetic field, the straight field line mirror field, which provides MHD stability of the system, absence of the radial drift even to the first order in plasma β , and a reduced magnetic flux tube ellipticity. Strong density depletion at the mirrors is proposed as a mean to build up a strong potential barrier for the electrons and thereby increase the electron temperature. Conditions to obtain an energy gain factor Q>10 are briefly analyzed. Current coils which could generate the derived magnetic field are proposed. A sloshing ion distribution function is constructed for the three dimensional ‘straight line mirror field’. The gyro centre Clebsch coordinates are found to be a new pair of motional invariants for this magnetic field. The gyro centre Clebsch coordinate invariants can be used to obtain complete solutions of the Vlasov equation, including the diamagnetic drift. These solutions show that the equilibria satisfy the locally omniginuity criterion to the first order in β .

    Contributions of the plasma diamagnetism to the magnetic flux tube ellipticity are studied for the straight field line mirror vacuum magnetic field and a sloshing ion distribution. Computations employing ray tracing have shown that there is a modest increase in the ellipticity, but the effect is small if β <0.2 .

    Adiabatic charged particle motion in general field geometry has been studied. A set of four independent stationary invariants, the energy, the magnetic moment, the radial drift invariant, and the bounce average parallel velocity is proposed to describe adiabatic equilibria.

    Open access
  • Montaño, Raul

    The Effects of Lightning on Low Voltage Power Networks

    2006.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The present society is highly dependant on complex electronics systems, which have a low damage threshold level. Therefore, there is a high risk of partial or total loss of the system’s electronics when they are exposed to a thunderstorm environment. This calls for a deep understanding on the mechanism related to the interaction of lightning generated electromagnetic fields with various large distributed/scattered systems. To accurately represent the interaction of lightning electromagnetic fields with electrical networks, it is necessary to have return stroke models capable to reproduce the electromagnetic field signatures generated by a lightning flash. Several models have been developed in the recent past to study the field-to-wire coupling mechanism. The most popular, simple and accurate among the available models is the Agrawal et al. model. On the other hand, ATP-EMTP is a well-known transient simulation package widely used by power engineers. This package has various built-in line models like Semlyen, Marti and Noda setups. There is a difficulty in applying the Agrawal et al. model with the built-in line models of ATP-EMTP, as the voltage source due to the horizontal component of electric field in Agrawal et al. model is in series with the line impedance and not in between two transmission line segments. Furthermore, when the electromagnetic field is propagating over a finite conducting ground plane, the soil will selectively attenuate the high frequency content of the electromagnetic field; causing a change in the field wave shape. A finite conducting ground will also produce a horizontal field component at the ground level. Several approximations are available in the literature to obtain the horizontal electric field; namely the wave-tilt and the Cooray-Rubinstein approximation. Consequently, it is important to investigate the change on the induced voltage signature when the power line is located over a finitely conducting ground. Additionally, to provide protection from lightning induced transients it is necessary to use Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) capable of diverting the incoming transients and provide protection level necessary to avoid damage in the equipment. However, standard test procedures of the SPDs do not take into account sub-microsecond structure of the transients. Therefore, to provide the required protection level to sensitive equipments connected to the low voltage power network, it is essential to understand the response of SPDs subjected to high current derivative impulses. This thesis is aimed to investigate the research problems as addressed above. Special attention will be given to a new proposed return stroke model, a simple circuit approach for efficient implementation of Agrawal et al. model using ATP-EMTP, the effect of the soil conductivity on the lightning induced overvoltage signatures and the response of surge protective devices subjected to high current derivative impulses.

    Open access

Publications

2005

  • Rahman, Mahbubur

    NOx Production by Ionisation Processes in Air

    2005.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The study presented in this thesis was motivated by the large uncertainty on the concentration of atmospheric electrical discharges to the global nitrogen budget. This uncertainty is partly due to the fact that information concerning the NOx production efficiency of electrical discharges having current signatures similar to those of lightning flashes is not available in the literature. Another reason for this uncertainty is the fact that energy is used as a figure of merit in evaluating NOx production from lightning flashes even though insufficient knowledge is available concerning the energy dissipation in lightning flashes. The third reason for this uncertainty is the lack of knowledge concerning the contribution of discharge processes other than return strokes to the NOx production in the atmosphere. Lightning is not the only process in the atmosphere that causes ionisation and dissociation of atmospheric air. Cosmic rays continuously bombard the Earth with high energetic particles and radiation causing ionization and dissociation of air leading to the production of NOx in the atmosphere. The work carried out in this thesis is an attempt to improve the current knowledge on the way in which these processes contribute to the global NOx production. Experiments have been conducted in this thesis to estimate the NOx production efficiency of streamer discharges, laser-induced plasma, laboratory sparks having current signatures similar to those of lightning flashes, alpha particle impact in air and finally with the lightning flash itself. The results obtained from laboratory electrical discharges show the following: (a) The NOx production efficiency, in terms of energy, of positive streamer discharges is more or less similar to those of hot discharges. (b) The NOx production efficiency of an electrical discharge depends not only on the energy but also on the peak and the shape of the current waveform. (c) The current signature is a better figure of merit in evaluating the NOx yield of electrical discharges. As a part of this thesis work a direct measurement of NOx generated by lightning flashes was conducted and the results show that slow discharge processes such as continuing currents could be the main source of NOx in lightning flashes. Concerning NOx production by other ionisation processes such as alpha particle impacts in the atmosphere, the data gathered in this thesis show that each ionising event in air leads to the creation of one NOx molecule. In terms of energy the NOx production efficiency of alpha particles is similar to that of electrical discharges. The theoretical studies conducted within this thesis indicate that M-components contribute more than the return strokes to the NOx production. The calculations also show that the contribution to the global NOx budget by return stroke is not as high as that assumed in the current literature.

    Open access

Publications

2002

  • Akyuz, Mose

    Positive streamer discharges in air and along insulating surfaces: experiment and simulation

    2002.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The power quality of modern society relies on the electrical properties of the dielectric insulators used in the power industry. Much research work has been conducted with an aim to understand and predict the insulating behaviour of such materials under different kinds of atmospheric conditions, but still there are many unsolved problems. In particular, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the electrohydrodynamic and electrophysical processes at the insulator surface and the surrounding medium. No detailed knowledge exists at present of the processes governing the development of electrical discharges along the surface of insulators.

    With an aim to enhance the knowledge in this field in general and on the electrical performance of outdoor insulators in particular a detailed study of the positive streamer discharges in air and along dielectric surfaces was conducted. The study was also extended to gain more knowledge on the water drop initiated electrical discharges in air and the attachment of natural lightning flashes to a Franklin conductor.

    In the first phase, the study was focused on positive streamer discharges propagating in air. The spatial distribution of the charge of a branched streamer discharge was obtained and the charge contained in a single streamer branch was quantified. In the second phase measurements and simulations of streamer discharges propagating along insulating surfaces were conducted with an aim to understand how the insulating surfaces interact with streamer discharges. In addition to quantifying the parameters of streamer discharges propagating along insulating surfaces, the results of these studies made it possible to separate and quantify the effects of the dielectric constant and the surface properties on the streamer discharges. In the third phase a comprehensive computer algorithm was developed to simulate 3-dimensional propagation of positive streamer discharges in air and along dielectric surfaces taking into account the branching effect.

    The conditions necessary for the initiation of streamer discharges were applied to obtain the minimum strength of the background electric field required to initiate electrical discharges in the presence of water drops. In particular the study provided an explanation of how lightning flashes are initiated in thunderclouds in background electric fields as low as 200 kV/m. Finally, the study was extended to understand the performance of lightning conductors paying special attention to the influence of conductor radius and the streamer inception criterion.

    Open access
  • Manyahi, Mighanda

    Characteristic of Surge Transfer Through Transformers: Study of Conventional Distribution Transformer and XLPE Cable Winding Transformer (Dryformer)

    2002.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Wide spread application and dependence on microelectronics based equipment in modern society has necessitated the study of power supply quality problems in low voltage power installations. In spite of improvements in surge protection, sensitive equipment connected to low-voltage side of distribution transformer has continued to fail due to transient voltages that are transferred through distribution transformer from high voltage circuits. Furthermore, the failures of distribution transformer primary winding due to lightning induced transients entering through unprotected low voltage (secondary) winding has been a subject of concern in recent years. Also the recent advent of XLPE cable winding transformer (Dryformer) that performs one step transformation from transmission to distribution voltage levels has introduced new challenges in our understanding of the transfer of transient surges between the transmission and distribution circuits. The knowledge of the signatures of transient surge voltages transferred between the distribution transformer and Dryformer circuits is essential for the evaluation of the transformer transient response, and hence, for devising appropriate protective methods. This thesis studies the transient response of distribution transformer and Dryformer, and provides an advanced understanding of transient overvoltage transfer between the circuits of these transformers.

    Transient response of distribution transformer and Dryformer are studied by laboratory experiments, with consideration of surges that have various steepness, amplitude and duration characteristics, replica of surges that are expected in practise. The differences between these transformer designs on transient responses are discussed in perspective of their basic difference in construction and winding design features. Simplified procedure for the formulation of transformer model suitable for simulating the transferred transient voltages is developed. The model is formulated based on terminal measurements of transfer and driving point short circuit admittance parameters, as elements of the nodal admittance matrix, obtained by either frequency domain or time domain measurements. The nodal admittance matrix elements are simultaneously approximated in the form of rational functions by vector fitting and admittance functions in the form of RLCG networks are realised. Ultimately, the high frequency transformer terminal model is created as a π-network consisting of the above RLCG networks for each of its branches, suitable for use in circuit simulation program in time domain. The realised model has an upper-frequency bandwidth of 3 MHz. The model validity is verified by comparing the model predictions with experimentally obtained responses, and it has been successfully applied in predicting the surge transfer between the transformer circuits due to various types of surges. Experiment and model prediction results shows that the characteristics of the transferred surge voltage depend both on the characteristics of the applied surge and on whether it is from primary to secondary or vice versa. The procedure for model formulation is general enough to be adapted for any two port devices that behave linearly in the frequency range of interest.

  • Silfverskiöld, Stefan

    Effects of Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse and High Power Microwaves on Military Electric Systems

    2002.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    The awareness of the threat posed by Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse (LEMP) and High Power Microwaves (HPM) against the operational reliability of electric systems is rapidly growing. This has led to an increasing need for reliable tools, experimental as well as theoretical, for design, analysis and verification of system immunity against electromagnetic threats. This thesis presents four main studies of electromagnetic interaction:

    Firstly, we present measurements of common-mode (CM) voltages induced in a residential low-voltage power installation (LVPI) network exposed to LEMP. The sequences of induced voltage events during the complete duration of a negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flash, a positive CG flash, and a cloud flash (CC) are presented simultaneously with the incident electric field. In addition to the return strokes in CG flashes, we found that other discharge events, notably the bipolar pulse trains associated with the initiation of both CG lightning and cloud lightning, determine the transient lightning electromagnetic environment of electric systems and components.

    Secondly, the induced voltages due to broad and narrow impulse current injection into the shield of 48 m long signal and power cables were studied in order to simulate the coupling of LEMP to shipboard cable networks. Single- and multi-point grounding were studied for proposing an appropriate grounding philosophy for ships.

    Thirdly, we have studied microwave, 0.5 to 18 GHz, field-to-wire coupling for some basic wire geometries in Anechoic Chamber (AC) and Reverberation Chamber (RC). Receiving parameters, such as the antenna receiving cross section, σw, and the effective antenna length of the wire, he, are presented. The ratio between the maximum and average values of σw may exceed 10 to 15 dB in the AC, the average being equal to σw measured in the RC. These large variations of σw measured in an AC, as a function of the direction and polarization of the incident field, imply a substantial risk for obtaining too low values of σw since, for realistic radiated susceptibility (RS) tests in an AC, only a few angles of incidence can typically be afforded. Furthermore, σw measured in the RC follows a χ2-distribution with two degrees of freedom, which it does not do in the AC.

    Fourthly, we present measurements of microwave field-to-Printed-Circuit-Board coupling for single-sided PCBs, double-sided PCBs and multi-layer PCBs performed in RC. Receiving parameters are presented. σw measured for PCBs in the RC is found to follow a χ2-distribution with two degrees of freedom. The impedance-matched σw is bounded by λ2/8π. he of the traces on the PCBs is found to be roughly bounded by the wavelength λ.

Publications

2001

  • Zitnik, Mihael

    Numerical Modelling of Transients in Electrical Systems

    2001.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    This thesis deals with the numerical modelling of the response of electrical systems to transient surge voltages and currents caused by lightning. Electrical systems, when subjected to high amplitude transients behave in ways very different from its behaviour under normal operating conditions. Modelling the response of the system in a computationally efficient way, while maintaining sufficient accuracy, is the challenge being addressed in this thesis.

    While modelling transients in a complex system it is required to reduce the complexity of the system in the model to manageable levels, at the same time retaining all the important characteristics of the system, including the non-linear responses. Transmission line model in time domain is simple and can handle non-linearities easily. Therefore transmission line method is utilised for modelling complex systems in this thesis. Transmission line parameters are deduced from the geometry of the system using field simulation methods. The model is then implemented in a circuit simulation software.

    To enable computer modelling of transient protection, experiments were conducted on metal-oxide varistors and the results were compared with the predictions of the existing varistor models. From these comparisons the deficiency of existing varistor models are identified and a new improved varistor model is proposed that can overcome these deficiencies. Additionally, using the transmission line method a multiconductor cable model is developed and experimentally verified.

    Several practical problems of industrial importance are investigated using the transmission line modelling method. The co-ordination between the primary and secondary overvoltage protectors in a low voltage power installation is investigated and it is shown that the existing practice of co-ordinating the primary and secondary protectors based only on the current and voltage ratings do not always work. In another application of the method current and voltage distributions during a lighting strike to the railway signalling and traction system is determined. Lastly, simulation of direct lightning strike to a radio communication tower is performed and the division of current between the cable system and the tower construction is determined. The parameters that influence this current division are also determined.

  • Berg, Marcus

    Estimation of hydrophobicity of insulating surfaces by studying sessile water drops

    2001.

    Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary

    Abstract

    Today, the traditional insulator materials for high voltage powerlines, i.e. glass and porcelain, are gradually being replaced with new materials, most notably silicone rubber. One of the properties that make composite insulators based on silicone rubber attractive is their hydrophobicity, which in the laboratory can be estimated by measuring contact angles of sessile water drops. The hydrophobic surface gives composite insulators better electrical flashover characteristics than hydrophilic insulators when being wet or polluted. However, the hydrophobicity of insulators in service is degraded by many factors such as pollution deposits, surface arcing and ageing, and should therefore be checked regularly.

    In this thesis, image analysis of water drop patterns on an inclined flat polymeric insulator surface has been performed in order to find a simple mathematical function that indicates the level of hydrophobicity of the insulator surface. The result, given the name of "Average of Normalised Entropies", ANE, seems to correlate well with hydrophobicity as defined by the classification of the Swedish Transmission Research Institute. This function is a composition of three other functions, viz. the standard deviation, the Shannon entropy and the "fraction of small differences". All these are in turn based on the histogram of horizontal nearest-neighbour pixel differences for a given digital greyscale image of a water drop pattern. ANE is fairly independent of illumination intensity (exposure), electronic gain and offset, and also of limited changes in the surface inclination.

    It is known that the shape of water drops can enhance the local electric field and influence the initiation of electrical discharges on the insulator surface. In this thesis, a particularly simple form of the Young-Laplace equation governing the shape of a sessile drop is derived and augmented with measures that facilitate efficient numerical computation. This mathematical representation will be useful for simulating axisymmetric drops in a vertical electric field as well as for contact angle measurement methods based on fitting theoretical drop shapes to sessile drops in digital images.

Last modified: 2023-08-26